CBSE NET Anthropology September-2013 Solved Paper III

  1. Which one of the following articles is related to ‘Fundamental Rights to Equality’

    1. Article 23

    2. Article 24

    3. Article 38

    4. Article 14

    Answer: d

  2. Which one of the following is NOT a traditional anthropological approach?

    1. Evolutionism

    2. Functionalism

    3. Impressionism

    4. Diffusionism

    Answer: c

  3. Who is the author of the book ‘Man and His Work’

    1. Alfred Kroeber

    2. Edmund Leach

    3. M. J. Herskovits

    4. Meyer Fortes

    Answer: c

  4. A ‘model of ritual symbolism’ was developed by

    1. Victor Turner

    2. E. Evans-Pritchard

    3. Clifford Geertz

    4. Rafael Karsten

    Answer: a

  5. A vision of society as constituting ‘Collective Consciousness’ is held by:

    1. Claude Levi-Strauss

    2. Marcel Mauss

    3. Bronislaw Malinowski

    4. Emile Durkheim

    Answer: d

  6. What is the term for the nuclear family that is formed when a person marries and has children?

    1. Family of orientation

    2. Family of procreation

    3. Family of parents

    4. None of the above

    Answer: b

  7. Which one of the followng is not studied in the field of finger ball dermatoglyphics?

    1. Ridge counting

    2. Ridge tracing

    3. Main-line formula

    4. Finger ball patterns

    Answer: c

  8. The term “Handy man” was used for:

    1. Neanderthal man

    2. Homo habilis

    3. Australopithecus

    4. Peking man

    Answer: b

  9. Haemophilia is a:

    1. Autosomal recessive trait

    2. Autosomal dominant trait

    3. Sex-linked dominant trait

    4. Sex-linked recessive trait

    Answer: d

  10. Adaptive radiation is an example of:

    1. Convergent evolution

    2. Divergent evolution

    3. Co-evolution

    4. Parallel evolution

    Answer: b

  11. Which one of the following is correctly matched?

      • Bipedalism and Erect posture
      • Apes
      • Mitosis
      • Reduction division
      • Sutton
      • Independent assortment
      • Blood groups
      • Multiple alleles

    Answer: d

  12. A condition of reduced oxygen supply to tissues despite adequate blood supply is known as:

    1. Anemia

    2. Hypoxia

    3. Obesity

    4. Anorexia

    Answer: b

  13. The Indian Chalcolithic culture is characterized by the occurrence of:

    1. Stone Tools

    2. Bronze Tools

    3. Copper Tools

    4. Iron Tools

    Answer: c

  14. In which one of the following sites the remains of Narmadapithecus are discovered?

    1. Nevasa

    2. Hathnova

    3. Hunsigi

    4. Navadatoli

    Answer: b

  15. The book entitled “The Prehistory and the Protohistory of India and Pakistan” was authored by:

    1. Virendranath Mishra

    2. Bendapudi Subba Rao

    3. Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia

    4. Robert Bruce Foote

    Answer: c

  16. Which of the following are concerned with mental health?

    1. Juvenile delinquency

    2. Kuru

    3. Drug addiction

    4. Infectious disease

    Codes:

    1. 1, 2 and 4

    2. 2 and 3

    3. 1, 3 and 4

    4. 1 and 3

    Answer: b

  17. The princple of social stratification is reflected in the formation of:

    1. Ethnic group

    2. Class

    3. Clan

    4. Caste

    Codes:

    1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct.

    2. 1 and 2 are correct.

    3. 2 and 4 are correct.

    4. 2 and 3 are correct.

    Answer: c

  18. Who among the following are associated with the culture and personality school?

    1. A Kardiner

    2. R Linton

    3. Cora Dubois

    4. William Sanders

    Codes:

    1. 1 and 4 are correct.

    2. 2 and ü 4 are correct.

    3. 1, 2 and 3 are correct.

    4. 2, 3 and 4 are correct.

    Answer: c

  19. Which of the following are the components of ‘Sacred Complex’ as proposed by L. P. Vidyarthi?

    1. Sacred Texts

    2. Sacred Geography

    3. Sacred Performances

    4. Sacred Specialists

    Codes:

    1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct.

    2. 1, 2 and 4 are correct.

    3. 1, 3 and 4 are correct.

    4. 2, 3 and 4 are correct.

    Answer: d

  20. Who among the following are considered as the weaker sections of the Indian society?

    1. Women

    2. Scheduled Tribes

    3. Men

    4. Scheduled Castes

    Codes:

    1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct.

    2. 2, 3 and 4 are correct.

    3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct.

    4. 1, 2 and 4 are correct.

    Answer: d

  21. Which of the following are the primary roles of a corporate group?

    1. As a caparcenary unit

    2. As a residential unit

    3. As a consanguineal kin group

    4. As a production unit

    Codes:

    1. 1, and 2 are correct.

    2. 1, 2 and 3 are correct.

    3. 1, 2 and 4 are correct.

    4. 3 and 4 are correct.

    Answer: c

  22. Which one of the following is not correct?

    1. Mutations cause genetic variation.

    2. Most of the populations are able to maintain a common gene pool.

    3. Genetic drift is also known as sewell-wright effect.

    4. Assortative mating means selection of similar phenotypes.

    Answer: b

  23. ‘Secular trend in growth’ means:

    1. Children are growing taller and age at menarche is decreasing.

    2. Age at menarche is increasing and children are growing taller.

    3. Children are getting shorter and age at menarche increasing.

    4. Children are getting shorter and age at menarche decreasing.

    Answer: a

  24. Which one of the following is an incorrect match? Genotype of parents Possible blood group of children

    1. IAIA × IoIo – A

    2. IAIB × IAIB – A, B or AB

    3. IoIo × IoIo – O

    4. IAIo × IAIB – A, B or O

    Answer: d

  25. The term ‘anthropoid’ refers to a unit of classification that includes:

    1. Monkeys & apes but not human

    2. Apes & humans but not monkeys

    3. Monkeys, apes and humans

    4. Lemurs, Lorises, monkeys, apes & humans

    Answer: c

  26. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

      • Brachiation
      • Gibbon
      • Balanced Polymorphism
      • Sickle cell anemia
      • Colourblindness
      • Holandric inheriance
      • Non
      • Disjunction
      • Abnormal number of chromosomes

    Answer: c

  27. Australopithecines include:

    1. Gracile forms of Australopithecus

    2. Robust forms of Australopithecus

    3. Both gracile and robust forms of Australopithecus

    4. None of the above

    Answer: c

  28. The concept of cultural ecology was used in culture-hstorical studies by:

    1. Julian Steward

    2. Vayda and Rappaport

    3. L Henry Morgan

    4. EB Tylor

    Codes:

    1. 1 andü 2

    2. 2 andü 3

    3. 3 and 4

    4. 4 and 1

    Answer: a

  29. The cultural route of early colonization of Australia during Hoabinhian culture was:

    1. Thailand – Malaysia – Indonesia – Papua New Guinea

    2. Thailand – Indonesia – Malaysia – Papua New Guinea

    3. Malaysia – Indonesia – Thailand – Tasmania

    4. Malaysia – Thailand – Indonesia – Tunisia

    Answer: a

  30. The Sarai Nahar Rai site in the Ganga Valley reveals evidences of:

    1. Human burial

    2. Pottery

    3. Copper Tools

    4. Microliths

    Codes:

    1. 1 and 2

    2. Only 3

    3. 1, 2 and 4

    4. All the above

    Answer: c

    • Assertion (A): Human beings have a culture, but they belong to a society.
    • Reason (R): An interest in culture is prompted by a desire to discover the way people in a society comprehend the world around them.
    1. A is correct, but R is wrong.

    2. A is wrong, but R is correct.

    3. Both A and R are correct.

    4. Both A and R are wrong.

    Answer: c

    • Assertion (A): Participant observation allows the ethnographer to unfold the complexities and subtleties of a community's social life.
    • Reason (R): Based on participant observation, it would be possible to say to what extent the beliefs and values shared by a specific community are typical of the regional context.
    1. A is correct, but R is wrong.

    2. A is wrong, but R is correct.

    3. Both A and R are correct.

    4. Both A and R are wrong.

    Answer: a

    • Assertion (A): Joking and avoidance are alternative ways of solving the social problem of conflict or social tension.
    • Reason (R): They occur in structural situations in which the potential for conflict or social awkwardness is high.
    1. Both A and R are correct.

    2. A is correct, but R is wrong.

    3. A is wrong, but R is correct.

    4. Both A and R are wrong.

    Answer: a

    • Assertion (A): The shift from tradition to modernity is based on a shift from status to contract at the societal level.
    • Reason (R): In a traditional society people enter into relations primarily on the basis of social status they are assigned by birth.
    1. Both A and R are correct.

    2. A is correct, but R is wrong.

    3. A is wrong, but R is correct.

    4. Both A and R are wrong.

    Answer: a

    • Assertion (A): For a pastoral society it is easer to keep the integrated character of the group.
    • Reason (R): In such a society a line of descent through males is not that strong and that's why, they could flock together.
    1. Both A and R are correct.

    2. A is correct, but R is wrong.

    3. A is wrong, but R is correct.

    4. Both A and R are wrong.

    Answer: b

    • Assertion (A): In a plural situation behaviour that might be illegal or immoral in one society might be perfectly rational and socially accepted in another.
    • Reason (R): Looking from the cultural context, all types of behaviour appear to be rational and socially acceptable in all situations.
    1. Both A and R are correct.

    2. A is correct, but R is wrong.

    3. A is wrong, but R is correct.

    4. A and R are correct statements, but R is not the correct explanation.

    Answer: d

    • Assertion (A): Kuru is observed among the members of the Fore tribe in New Guinea.
    • Reason (R): It is a disease of viral origin contributed by the Fore practice of cannibalism.
    1. A is correct, but R is incorrect.

    2. Both A and R are correct.

    3. Both A and R are incorrect.

    4. R is correct, but A is incorrect.

    Answer: b

    • Assertion (A): Gene flow introduces new alleles into populations.
    • Reason (R): Migration is responsible for the gene flow.
    1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of (A).

    2. Both A and R are false and R is not the correct explanation of (A).

    3. A is true, but R is false.

    4. R is true, but A is false.

    Answer: a

    • Assertion (A): The term ‘pedigree’ and not ‘geneology’ is more often employed in genetic inheritance studies.
    • Reason (R): ‘Geneology’ also includes adopted children and parents as well.
    1. Both A and R are correct.

    2. A is correct, but R is incorrect.

    3. R is correct, but A is incorrect.

    4. Both A and R are incorrect

    Answer: a

    • Assertion (A): The relative phylogenetic position of the human remains unearthed at different locales are gaining scientific footing.
    • Reason (R): The macro-level fossil evidences are now subjected to micro-level analysis of molecular genetic characters and isotopic chronology.
    1. A is correct, but R is incorrect.

    2. Both A and R are incorrect.

    3. R is correct, but A is incorrect.

    4. Both A and R are correct.

    Answer: d

    • Assertion (A): Beta-thalassaemia is most common in the Mediterranian region.
    • Reason (R): It is not a disease of Haemoglobin disorder.
    1. Both A and R are correct.

    2. Both A and R are incorrect.

    3. A is correct, but R is incorrect.

    4. A is incorrect, but R is correct.

    Answer: c

    • Assertion (A): Anorexia nervosa is very common among girls.
    • Reason (R): An ideal of female attractiveness emphasizing on thnness is thought to provide cultural status leading to the development of anorexia (starving oneself to loose weight).
    1. A is correct, but R is incorrect.

    2. R is correct, but A is incorrect.

    3. Both A and R are incorrect.

    4. Both A and R are correct.

    Answer: d

    • Assertion (A): The evidences of Homo erectus were recorded in different continents of the old world including Southeast Asian islands.
    • Reason (R): The bipedalism and use of hand axe as a multipurpose tool extended an adaptation to be a nomad on par with faunal migrations.
    1. Both A and R are correct.

    2. Both A and R are false.

    3. A is correct, but R is false.

    4. A is false, but R is correct.

    Answer: a

    • Assertion (A): The ecological conditions of ‘Nuclear Areas’ are the prerequisite for the early domestication of plants and animals.
    • Reason (R): The flood-plains of rivers like Eupharatis and Tigris extended an ecology for the growth of gramenaceae species (grasses) which supported wild varities of sheep, goat and cattle.
    1. Both A and R are correct.

    2. Both A and R are false.

    3. A is correct, but R is false.

    4. A is false, but R is correct.

    Answer: a

    • Assertion (A): A well flourished Harappan Culture between 3500 and 1750 BCE had a rise and fall.
    • Reason (R): The Aryan invasion is the root cause for the decline and perishing of a Great culture.
    1. Both A and R are correct.

    2. Both A and R are false.

    3. A is correct, but R is false.

    4. A is false, but R is correct.

    Answer: c

  31. Arrange the following books in order in which they appeared. Use the codes given below:

    1. Peasants by Eric Wolf

    2. Social Anthropology by Edmund Leach

    3. The Nuer by E. E. Evans-Pritchard

    4. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy by Karl Marx

    Codes:

    1. 1, 4, 3, 2

    2. 4, 3, 2, 1

    3. 4, 3, 1, 2

    4. 3, 4, 2, 1

    Answer: c

  32. Identify the correct sequence:

    1. Monogamy – Group marriage – Polygamy – Sexual Promiscuity

    2. Sexual Promiscuity – Group marriage – Polygamy – Monogamy

    3. Polygamy – Monogamy – Sexual Promiscuity – Group marriage

    4. Group marriage – Sexual Promiscuity – Monogamy – Polygamy

    Answer: b

  33. Arrange the following Indian Anthropoligists in order in which they made their appearance in the academic field:

    1. Nirmal Kumar Bose

    2. Panchanan Mitra

    3. Andre Beatille

    4. LK Mahapatra

    Codes:

    1. 1, 2, 3, 4

    2. 2, 1, 4, 3

    3. 1, 2, 4, 3

    4. 2, 1, 3, 4

    Answer: b

  34. Arrange the following, in order of increasing scale of Outreach:

    1. Ethnomedicine – Home remedies – Ayurveda – Allopathy

    2. Home remedies – Ayurveda – Allopathy – Ethnomedicine

    3. Allopathy – Home remedies – Ayurveda – Ethnomedicine

    4. Home remedies – Ethnomedicine – Ayurveda – Allopathy

    Answer: d

  35. Identify the correct sequence in formulating a research design:

    1. Selection of problem – Selection of method – Selection of universe – Selection of sample

    2. Selection of method – Selection of problem – Selection of universe – Selection of sample

    3. Selection of problem – Selection of sample – Selection of universe – Selection of method

    4. Selection of universe – Selection of method – Selection of sample – Selection of problem

    Answer: a

  36. In notifying a tribe as ‘Scheduled Tribe’ which of the following, is one of the considerations?

    1. Shyness with the public at large

    2. Sex-ratio in the community

    3. Population size of the community

    4. Religion practiced by the community

    Answer: a

  37. Identify the correct sequence of Landmarks anterior-posteriorly in the mid-sagittal plane:

    1. Nasion – Bregma – Opisthocranion – Glabella

    2. Bregma – Nasion – Opisthocranion – Glabella

    3. Nasion – Glabella – Bregma – Opisthocranion

    4. Glabella – Nasion – Bregma – Opisthocranion

    Answer: c

  38. What is the sequence of information transfer in protein coding?

    1. mRNA → DNA → tRNA → Aminoacid → Protein

    2. DNA → tRNA → mRNA → Aminoacid → Protein

    3. DNA → tRNA → Aminoacid → mRNA → Protein

    4. DNA → mRNA → tRNA → Aminoacid → Protein

    Answer: d

  39. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of a polymerase chain reaction?

    1. Primer extension → Annealing of primers → Denaturation of DNA fragment

    2. Annealing of primers → Denaturation of DNA fragment → Primer extension

    3. Denaturation of DNA fragment → Primer extension → Annealing of primers

    4. Denaturation of DNA fragment → Annealing of primers → Primer extension

    Answer: d

  40. Identify the correct sequence of blood group systems in order of their discovery:

    1. Rh → ABO → MN → Ss

    2. Rh → MN → ABO → Ss

    3. ABO → MN → Rh → Ss

    4. MN → ABO → Ss → Rh

    Answer: c

  41. Identify the correct sequence of polymorphic genetic markers in the order of their use in population variation studies:

    1. Red cell antigens → Serum proteins → Red cell enzymes → DNA markers

    2. Red cell enzymes → Serum proteins → DNA markers → Red cell antigens

    3. Red cell antigens → DNA markers → Serum proteins → Red cell enzymes

    4. DNA markers → Serum proteins → Red cell enzymes → Red cell antigens

    Answer: a

  42. Identify the correct sequence of vertebrae in the human vertebral column from cephalic to caudal direction:

    1. Axis → Atlas → Thoracic → Cervical → Lumber → Sacrum → Coccyx

    2. Atlas → Axis → Cervical → Thoracic → Lumber → Sacrum → Coccyx

    3. Cervical → Atlas → Axis → Coccyx → Lumber → Thoracic → Sacrum

    4. Lumber → Sacrum → Axis → Atlas → Coccyx → Thoracic → Cervical

    Answer: b

  43. Arrange the sites in the culture – chronological order:

    1. Attirampakam – Nevasa – Patne – Bagov – Utnur

    2. Attirampakam – Utnur – Nevasa – Patne – Bagov

    3. Nevasa – Utnur – Patne – Bagov – Attirampakam

    4. Patne – Bagov – Nevasa – Attirampakam – Utnur

    Answer: a

  44. Arrange the European prehistoric cultural traditions in the correct sequence:

    1. Gravettian – Perigordian – Azilian – Maglemosian

    2. Azilian – Maglemosian – Perigordian – Gravettian

    3. Perigordian – Gravettian – Azilian – Maglemosian

    4. Maglemosian – Azilian – Perigordian – Gravettian

    Answer: c

  45. The Great Indian Civilization of the Harappan culture is known through:

    1. Town planning – Navigation – Trade– Inscriptions

    2. Ship building – Pyramidal structures – Sun God

    3. Granaries – Dock Yard – Inscriptions – Pottery

    4. Town planning – Trade – Seals – Terracottas

    Answer: d

  46. Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II. Use the codes given below:

    List-I List-II
    1. Marriage of a man to his mother's brother's daughter

    2. Marriage of a man to his father's brother's daughter

    3. Marriage of a man to his dead wife's sister

    4. Marriage of a woman to her dead husband's brother

    1. Parallelcousin marriage

    2. Crosscousin marriage

    3. Sororate

    4. Levirate

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3
      • 4
      • 4
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3
      • 3
      • 2
      • 4
      • 1
      • 2
      • 1
      • 3
      • 4

    Answer: d

  47. Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II. Use the codes given below:

    List-I List-II
    1. Oscar Lewis

    2. Mckim Marriott

    3. AC Mayer

    4. FG Bailey

    1. Village Kishangarhi

    2. Village Rampur

    3. Village Ramkheri

    4. Village Bisipara

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
      • 2
      • 1
      • 3
      • 4
      • 4
      • 3
      • 2
      • 1
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3
      • 4
      • 3
      • 4
      • 1
      • 2

    Answer: a

  48. Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II. Use the codes given below:

    List-I List-II
    1. Differential Evolution

    2. Cultural Ecology

    3. Developmental Scheme

    4. Social Darvinism

    1. Julian Steward

    2. Herbert Spencer

    3. Lewis Henry Morgan

    4. Charles Darwin

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3
      • 4
      • 2
      • 1
      • 4
      • 3
      • 4
      • 1
      • 3
      • 2
      • 3
      • 2
      • 1
      • 4

    Answer: c

  49. Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II. Use the codes given below:

    List-I List-II
    1. ‘Races and Cultures of India’

    2. ‘Society in India’

    3. Homo hierarchicus

    4. ‘Caste and other Inequalities’

    1. DN Majumdar

    2. Andre Beatille

    3. David Mandelbaum

    4. Luis Dumont

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3
      • 4
      • 1
      • 3
      • 4
      • 2
      • 2
      • 1
      • 3
      • 4
      • 3
      • 2
      • 4
      • 1

    Answer: b

  50. Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II. Use the codes given below:

    List-I List-II
    1. Polyploidy

    2. Sexlimited trait

    3. Sexinfluenced trait

    4. Sex-linked trait

    1. Traits expressed in only one sex that are controlled by genes on the autosomes

    2. Having extra set of chromosome

    3. Traits expressed more often in one sex that are controlled by genes on the sex chromosomes

    4. Traits expressed more often in one sex that are controlled by genes on the autosomes

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
      • 2
      • 3
      • 4
      • 1
      • 1
      • 2
      • 4
      • 3
      • 3
      • 1
      • 4
      • 2
      • 2
      • 1
      • 4
      • 3

    Answer: d

  51. Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II. Use the codes given below:

    List-I List-II
    1. Transcription

    2. Translation

    3. Genetic material

    4. Genetic code

    1. Protein production

    2. Triplet UUU

    3. m-RNA production

    4. DNA

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
      • 3
      • 1
      • 4
      • 2
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3
      • 4
      • 3
      • 4
      • 2
      • 1
      • 4
      • 3
      • 2
      • 1

    Answer: a

  52. Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II. Use the codes given below:

    List-I List-II
    1. Taq polymerase

    2. DNA fingerprinting

    3. Haptoglobin

    4. G6PD

    1. Red cell enzyme

    2. Serum protein

    3. Alec Jafferey

    4. Polymerasechain reaction

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
      • 4
      • 3
      • 2
      • 1
      • 4
      • 1
      • 3
      • 2
      • 1
      • 4
      • 2
      • 3
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3
      • 4

    Answer: a

  53. Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II. Use the codes given below:

    List-I List-II
    1. Autosomal recessive

    2. Autosomal dominant

    3. Sex-linked

    4. Sex – limited

    1. Haemophilia

    2. Beard development

    3. Polydactyly

    4. Phenyl ketonuria

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
      • 4
      • 3
      • 1
      • 2
      • 4
      • 1
      • 3
      • 2
      • 1
      • 4
      • 2
      • 3
      • 3
      • 1
      • 2
      • 4

    Answer: a

  54. Match an archaeological site in List-I with the cultural phase in List-II. Use the codes given below:

    List-I List-II
    1. Tilwara

    2. Sanganakallu

    3. Inamgaon

    4. Kosambi

    1. Iron age

    2. Mesolithic site

    3. Neolithic site

    4. Chalcolithic site

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
      • 1
      • 4
      • 3
      • 2
      • 3
      • 1
      • 2
      • 4
      • 2
      • 3
      • 4
      • 1
      • 4
      • 2
      • 1
      • 3

    Answer: c

  55. Match an item in List-I (tool form) with tool type in List-II. Use the codes given below:

    List-I List-II
    1. Compound Tool

    2. Core Tool

    3. Bone Tool

    4. Engraver

    1. Chopper

    2. Harpoon

    3. Burin

    4. Microliths

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
      • 1
      • 4
      • 3
      • 2
      • 3
      • 2
      • 4
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3
      • 1
      • 4
      • 4
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow, based on your understanding of the passage: (Q. Nos. 71 − 75)

The field of development anthropology has been around long enough to know, in general terms, what works and what does not when designing programs of planned change. It would be overstating the case to suggest that an anthropologically informed project that takes into consideration local cultural realities is bound to succeed. But it would not be unreasonable to hold that any project ignoring local cultures is very likely to shoot itself in the foot. It is, therefore, stunning to read about a development project initiated in the 1990s that so thoroughly avoided addressing the major issues of development anthropology. Applied anthropologist William Loker (2000) describes a $25 million project in Central Honduras designed (allegedly) to create sustainable development while at the same time protect the environment.

The El Cajon Watershed Renewable Natural Resource Program was designed to help very poor people who had been displaced a decade earlier by the construction of a large dam controlled and operated by the national electrical authority. Although the planning documents said all of the right things, the implementation was quite another story. First, because there was no anthropological input, the project administrators knew little about the local culture, attitudes, or local organizations. Project plans called for active participation by local people and close coordination with local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Yet, owing to lack of interest, a lack of good information, or both, neither of these proposed goals was successfully carried out:

But perhaps even more damaging to this expensive, but potentially beneficial, project was the apparent lack of consideration for some basic issues of development. The dual objectives of the project – sustainable economic development for local people and protecting the environment – are often at odds with each other. The literature is filled with examples of how conflicts exist between economic development and protecting the environment yet program planners never addressed this issue or its implications for project activities. Instead of considering how environmental and development goals could be made compatible, administrators embarked on a tree-planting project without much of an idea as to how it might impact either the social or natural environment. After interviewing the forestry engineer responsible for carrying out the tree-planting project, it became clear to Loker that the most basic questions had not been answered. For example, what trees should be planted, by whom, and for what purpose? How should trees be integrated into the already existing agricultural system? On whose land should the trees be planted, and who owns them? That none of these questions had been answered prior to the start of the project indicated to Loker a shameful lack of thought about the project on the part of the administrators.

Answer: d

  1. What should be the main concern of development anthropology?

    1. To know what works when designing planned change.

    2. To know what does not work when designing planned change.

    3. To know what works and what does not work when designing planned change.

    4. To design planned change.

    Answer: c

  2. An anthropologically informed project means:

    1. That anthropologists are also the executors of the project.

    2. That it seeks the views of anthropologists on the modalities of the project.

    3. That it takes into consideration local cultural realities.

    4. That it ignores local cultures in favour of anthropologists'personal opinion.

    Answer: c

  3. What did the El Cajon Watershed Renewable Natural Resource Program in Honduras want to achieve?

    1. To create sustainable development.

    2. To protect the environment.

    3. To create sustainable development. And at the same time protect the environment.

    4. To help very poor people who had been displaced earlier.

    Codes:

    1. 1 & 2

    2. 2 & 3

    3. 1 & 3

    4. 3 & 4

    Answer: d

  4. Why did the Watershed Renewable Natural Resource Program fail?

    1. The local nongovernmental organzations were left out:

    2. Active participation of local people in the project was not sought.

    3. There was a general lack of interest on the part of all the stakeholders.

    4. The dual reasons of a lack of interest and a lack of good information about local cultural realities contributed to the failure of the program.

    Answer: d

  5. What were the lessons learnt from the project?

    1. Potential areas of conflict between economic development and protecting the environment were never addressed.

    2. There was not much of an idea about the social and natural environment.

    3. The tree-planting project undertaken by the forestry engineer should have been vigorously pursued.

    4. The administrator should have taken more such initiatives from their side.

    Codes:

    1. 1 and 2

    2. 2 and 3

    3. 3 and 4

    4. 1 and 4

    Answer: a