CBSE UGC-NET June 2003 Paper I (Part 2 of 4)

  1. Many of the underdeveloped countries will promote the growth of their economies in One way or another no matter whether they receive substantial outside aid in the process or not. The character of that development, however is likely to be strongly influenced by the tied amounts of aid available. The outcome is much more likely to be favorable, from the objectives for successful (level r) set up previously, if there is substantial ‘international aid than if there is not. By substantial aid I mean not only large amounts of technical assistance but also of capital. Initially, the capacity of an underdeveloped country to use capital productively may be surprisingly small-limited by lack of organization, trained personnel, and other social obstacles. At this stage technical assistance is its main need from outside, with comparatively small amounts of capital, much of which may have to be in the fonrin of grants for non-self-liquidating projects in education, health, access roads to rural areas, and the like. If, at this stage, substantial capital available from outside to supplement that can be formed internally (and to stimulate internal capital formation, for it does that too) the rate of economic growth can be considerably increased, and the strains and frustrations and political risks of the development process are likely to be considerably less. It is possible for underdeveloped economies to modernize themselves with very little capital from outside. Japan's imports of capital were small. Though some of it came at crucial times. The contribution of foreign direct investment to of technical know-how, also was greater than would be indicated merely by the 71's of investment. The Soviet Union industrialize economy with practically no aid from FDI capital except for the’ owned installations confiscated after the revolution, though it imported machinery in the early days on short-term or intermediate-term credits and hired services of foreign experts. Both Japan and Russia achieved their development in an authoritarian political and social framework. The outcome in both cases, from standpoint of the peace of the world and democratic ideals, were highly unfavorable. In the absence of outside aid, the only way accumulate capital is to increase production without taking much of the benefit in more consumption, or even while pushing consumption standards down. Where the people are already near the subsistence level this may mean extreme hardship. Somehow the people must be motivated to change their accustomed ways quickly, to work hard, and to forego present consumption so that capital investment can be made. The passage says:

    1. Without foreign aid to under-developed country can grow

    2. Underdeveloped countries must refrain from seeking foreign aid

    3. The economies of underdeveloped countries are more likely to grow faster with substantial foreign aid than without:

    4. Underdeveloped countries are economically backward because their governments have not got their priorities right.

    Answer: c

  2. Many of the underdeveloped countries will promote the growth of their economies in One way or another no matter whether they receive substantial outside aid in the process or not. The character of that development, however is likely to be strongly influenced by the tied amounts of aid available. The outcome is much more likely to be favorable, from the objectives for successful (level r) set up previously, if there is substantial ‘international aid than if there is not. By substantial aid I mean not only large amounts of technical assistance but also of capital. Initially, the capacity of an underdeveloped country to use capital productively may be surprisingly small-limited by lack of organization, trained personnel, and other social obstacles. At this stage technical assistance is its main need from outside, with comparatively small amounts of capital, much of which may have to be in the fonrin of grants for non-self-liquidating projects in education, health, access roads to rural areas, and the like. If, at this stage, substantial capital available from outside to supplement that can be formed internally (and to stimulate internal capital formation, for it does that too) the rate of economic growth can be considerably increased, and the strains and frustrations and political risks of the development process are likely to be considerably less. It is possible for underdeveloped economies to modernize themselves with very little capital from outside. Japan's imports of capital were small. Though some of it came at crucial times. The contribution of foreign direct investment to of technical know-how, also was greater than would be indicated merely by the 71's of investment. The Soviet Union industrialize economy with practically no aid from FDI capital except for the’ owned installations confiscated after the revolution, though it imported machinery in the early days on short-term or intermediate-term credits and hired services of foreign experts. Both Japan and Russia achieved their development in an authoritarian political and social framework. The outcome in both cases, from standpoint of the peace of the world and democratic ideals, were highly unfavorable. In the absence of outside aid, the only way accumulate capital is to increase production without taking much of the benefit in more consumption, or even while pushing consumption standards down. Where the people are already near the subsistence level this may mean extreme hardship. Somehow the people must be motivated to change their accustomed ways quickly, to work hard, and to forego present consumption so that capital investment can be made. Substantial aid in this context means:

    1. technical assistance in the form of trained personnel

    2. capital, in the form of bank loans and overdrafts

    3. large amount of technical assistance and capital

    4. a cheap and plentiful supply of labour.

    Answer: c

  3. Many of the underdeveloped countries will promote the growth of their economies in One way or another no matter whether they receive substantial outside aid in the process or not. The character of that development, however is likely to be strongly influenced by the tied amounts of aid available. The outcome is much more likely to be favorable, from the objectives for successful (level r) set up previously, if there is substantial ‘international aid than if there is not. By substantial aid I mean not only large amounts of technical assistance but also of capital. Initially, the capacity of an underdeveloped country to use capital productively may be surprisingly small-limited by lack of organization, trained personnel, and other social obstacles. At this stage technical assistance is its main need from outside, with comparatively small amounts of capital, much of which may have to be in the fonrin of grants for non-self-liquidating projects in education, health, access roads to rural areas, and the like. If, at this stage, substantial capital available from outside to supplement that can be formed internally (and to stimulate internal capital formation, for it does that too) the rate of economic growth can be considerably increased, and the strains and frustrations and political risks of the development process are likely to be considerably less. It is possible for underdeveloped economies to modernize themselves with very little capital from outside. Japan's imports of capital were small. Though some of it came at crucial times. The contribution of foreign direct investment to of technical know-how, also was greater than would be indicated merely by the 71's of investment. The Soviet Union industrialize economy with practically no aid from FDI capital except for the’ owned installations confiscated after the revolution, though it imported machinery in the early days on short-term or intermediate-term credits and hired services of foreign experts. Both Japan and Russia achieved their development in an authoritarian political and social framework. The outcome in both cases, from standpoint of the peace of the world and democratic ideals, were highly unfavorable. In the absence of outside aid, the only way accumulate capital is to increase production without taking much of the benefit in more consumption, or even while pushing consumption standards down. Where the people are already near the subsistence level this may mean extreme hardship. Somehow the people must be motivated to change their accustomed ways quickly, to work hard, and to forego present consumption so that capital investment can be made. The availability of substantial capital from outside:

    1. can help to stimulate internal capital formation

    2. does encourage wasteful tendencies

    3. seldom helps to accelerate the rate of internal growth

    4. tends to discourage local capitalformation.

    Answer: a

  4. Many of the underdeveloped countries will promote the growth of their economies in One way or another no matter whether they receive substantial outside aid in the process or not. The character of that development, however is likely to be strongly influenced by the tied amounts of aid available. The outcome is much more likely to be favorable, from the objectives for successful (level r) set up previously, if there is substantial ‘international aid than if there is not. By substantial aid I mean not only large amounts of technical assistance but also of capital. Initially, the capacity of an underdeveloped country to use capital productively may be surprisingly small-limited by lack of organization, trained personnel, and other social obstacles. At this stage technical assistance is its main need from outside, with comparatively small amounts of capital, much of which may have to be in the fonrin of grants for non-self-liquidating projects in education, health, access roads to rural areas, and the like. If, at this stage, substantial capital available from outside to supplement that can be formed internally (and to stimulate internal capital formation, for it does that too) the rate of economic growth can be considerably increased, and the strains and frustrations and political risks of the development process are likely to be considerably less. It is possible for underdeveloped economies to modernize themselves with very little capital from outside. Japan's imports of capital were small. Though some of it came at crucial times. The contribution of foreign direct investment to of technical know-how, also was greater than would be indicated merely by the 71's of investment. The Soviet Union industrialize economy with practically no aid from FDI capital except for the’ owned installations confiscated after the revolution, though it imported machinery in the early days on short-term or intermediate-term credits and hired services of foreign experts. Both Japan and Russia achieved their development in an authoritarian political and social framework. The outcome in both cases, from standpoint of the peace of the world and democratic ideals, were highly unfavorable. In the absence of outside aid, the only way accumulate capital is to increase production without taking much of the benefit in more consumption, or even while pushing consumption standards down. Where the people are already near the subsistence level this may mean extreme hardship. Somehow the people must be motivated to change their accustomed ways quickly, to work hard, and to forego present consumption so that capital investment can be made. The passage says that:

    1. Japan imported substantial capital before it became modernised

    2. the Soviet Union industrialized its economy with plenty of foreign investment capital

    3. Japan rejected offers of substantial foreign capital investment in the early stages of its economic development

    4. In the early days of the economic development the Soviet Union imported machinery on short-term or intermediate-term credits and hired foreign experts.

    Answer: d

  5. To find out whether learning has taken place, psychologists would consider the criterion of:

    1. social pressures

    2. habit formation

    3. motivation

    4. Speed of reaction

    Answer: a

  6. What should be the teacher's response towards mistakes?

    1. take all precautions so that students never commit mistakes

    2. should mildly punish students if they make mistakes

    3. it was too difficult for him to remember

    4. it was lost as a result of learning something else subsequently

    5. one can hardly remember what is not used daily

    Answer: c

  7. When a student cannot recall something he had learnt some time back, we can assume that:

    1. loss of memory

    2. weak memory

    3. lack of attention span

    4. neglect

    Answer: c

  8. How should a teacher introduce a new subject in class for the first time?

    1. begin the first chapter without delay

    2. give a broad outline of what is going to be done

    3. divide the class into groups for discussing the topic

    4. give a preface and start the lesson

    Answer: b

  9. The development of a person's desirable characteristics is largely because of:

    1. learning

    2. Increased sensitivity to appropriate stimuli

    3. Increased understanding

    4. Improved behavior

    Answer: c