CBSE (UGC) NET Paper 1 Communication and Technology: Elements of Communication
- The sender initiate the communication process with having an idea in his or her mind and begins the communication process by forming intentions and feelings that need be transferred. The sender is required to filter out the details that are uilcrucial and focus his or her energy on the most desirable information. The source or encoder makes the decision to integrate. The source also determines what the purpose of the message will be to inform, persuade or entertain. The communication process starts from the source. First, the source must encode or form a message. The information that the source wants to send must be put into a form that can be sent to the receiver.
- Message: The second most crucial element of the communication process is the message or the overall information which is being communicated. The source encodes an idea and then determines whether or not to inform, persuade, or entertain. After deciding what message to send, the source uses symbols to get the message across to others. These symbols stand for other things. The most crucial symbols are words, which can represent objects, ideas, and feelings. These words permit us to share our thoughts with other members of our species. To increase the likelihood of successful communication, the source must try to encode in a way that the receiver understands, so that the receiver can properly decode or interpret the message.
- Channel: Channels are the means namely pathways or devices by which messages are communicated. Channels may be described and analyzed in two different ways. The first involves the form in which messages are sent to receivers. Forms comprise both verbal and nonverbal channels of communication. We use our five senses to receive messages from others. Channels can be defined as the manner of presentation employed in communication. Depending on the situation, the source would focus on verbal and non verbal channels of communication. If the speaker is not in front of the audience his or her physical appearance wouldn't matter, but if he or she is giving lectures in a classroom or before a live audience, personal appearance could easily influence the reception of the message. Whatever channels of communication are used, the source must learn to adapt the message to make use of the most appropriate channels available for the situation.
- Receiver or Decoder: The person who receive the message is known as the receiver. The act of interpreting messages is known as decoding. Receivers decode messages based on past experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings. We first have a physiological reception of stimuli i.e.. a noise causes sound waves to hit our eardrum or a movement catches our eye. We must focus on both the verbal and non-verbal stimuli and reduce all the stimuli bombarding us to one or two we can cope with more easily. We must try to understand the stimuli and interpret them into messages i.e.. We decide that the noise is a telephone bell or that the movement is a friend waving to us around campus. At last, we store this information for later use so that next time we will be able to respond to the stimuli often more quickly. It is crucial to keep in mind that receivers make quick decisions about what they will respond to in a particular situation.
- Feedback: Feedback is also known as a reply or a revert is the most vital element of the entire communication process. Each party in an interaction continuously sends messages back to the other. This return process is known as feedback. Feedback shows the source how the receiver has interpreted each message: The feedback, which delivers lack of understanding is known as negative feedback. ‘Positive feedback, on the other hand, indicates that the receiver has understood the source's message. It not all the times mean that he or she agrees with the source, just that the message was interpreted accurately. Feedback can also be ambiguous, not clearly positive or negative.’ See “and” mm-hmm" can be examples of ambiguous feedback i.e.. Confusion. The effective communicator is always sensitive to feedback and frequently changes his or her messages as per the feedback received.
- hindrances or Noise: The human communication system can be compared with a radio or telephone circuit. Just as in radio transmissions, where distortion can occur at any point along the channel, there can be similar hindrances in human communication. The source's information may be unclear. Or the message can be ineffectively or inaccurately encoded. The wrong channel of communication may be used. The message may not be decoded the way it was encoded. At last, the receiver may not equipped to handle the decoded message in such a way as to produce the response or reply expected by the source. ‘hindrances’ are any obstacles or difficulties that come in the way of communication. They may be physical, mechanical, psychological, cultural or linguistic in nature. Also, then are the hindrances, raised by interpersonal relationships between individual and groups, the biasness of both individuals and groups and the channels they use to integrate or communicate.