CBSE (UGC) NET Paper 1 Communication and Technology: Satellite Data Acquisition, Processing And Dissemination
Satellite Data Acquisition, Processing And Dissemination
The National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad, continues to get remote sensing data from the Indian satellites, IRS-IC, IRS-lO, IRS-PS, IRS-P4 and the TES as well as the US NOAA-14, Landsat-5 and European ERS-2. The Data Reception Station (ORS) of NRSA at Shadnagar, has been further augmented to get data from TRS-P5 (CARTOSAT) and IRS-P6 (RESOURCESAT). Aerial Remote Sensing: NR5A operates two aircraft that have been modified for multi-sensor operation with high performance work station and digital photogrammetry system to form data products. Aerial remote sensing services provided by NRSA is availed by various agencies for aerial photography, mapping, infrastructure planning, aeromagnetic surveys, large scale base maps and topographic and cadastral mapping. Some of the aerial surveys carried out consist aerial photography of nine towns of Gujarat that were affected by the earthquake in January 2001, twenty seven towns in Andhra Pradesh, seven districts in Madhya Pradesh, three towns of Rajasthan, Bangalore peripheral areas and flood affected areas of Orissa.
Low altitude flight for airborne geophysical survey for Atomic Mineral Division and nights carrying Synthetic Aperture Radar have also been carried out. Re mote Sensing Data Policy: The Government has announced, a Remote Sensing Data Policy (RSDP) in order to streamline the availability of remote sensing data from Indian and foreign satellites to users in India. As per the RSDP. Government's permission will be required for operating remote sensing satellites in India and for distribution of satellite images in India. The NRSA, Hyderabad, will be the national acquisition and distribution array for all satellite data within India. NRSA can enter into agreements for distribution of data from foreign satellite in India.
Antrix Corporation, the commercial agency under the Department of Space, will license the use of IRS capacities outside India. The announcement of RSDP is an crucial step pertaining to making transparent. The procedures of satellite data distribution, consisting those from high resolution imaging systems. I t would help to alter the process of image distribution so that Indian users are not denied access to valuable satellite based imageries, which can be used in the development of natural resources. Remote Sensing Applications: Space-based remote sensing, because of its synoptic and repetitive coverage of large areas as well as providing data in a quantifiable manner has enabled monitoring and assessment of different natural resources. Today space-based remote sensing is used for various areas of resources, survey and management. Projects of national relevance in different application themes are being carried out with the involvement of user agencies at central and state levels. Some of the core applications to which remote sensing is being used in the country are focused in the paragraphs.
Crop Acreage And Production Estimation (CAPE): CAPE was designed in the year 1995 with the sponsorship of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. Under this project, multi-date lRS satellite data are used for pre-harvest acreage and production estimation for core food crops as well as cotton. The estimates are provided far kharif rice in Bihar. Rabi dee in Orissa, mustard in Assam, Gujarat, Haryana, Rajasthan and West Bengal, wheat in Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh and sorghum in Maharashtra. FASAL: Based on the success of CAPE. An enlarged and comprehensive scheme known as Forecasting Agricultural output using Space, Agrometeorology and Land based observations (FASAL) bas been taken up. FASAL now covers kharif rice in Orissa as a pilot project as well as forecasting kharif rice production at the national level. It is proposed to set up a FASALNCCF (National Centre for Crop Forecasting) under the aegis of the Ministry of Agriculture. Drought Assessment and Monitoring: Based on the data collected by the satellites on the vegetation indices and ground based information, fortnightly bulletins on crop conditions depicting agricultural drought are being issued for eleven slates, and at sub-district level during kharif season. Flood Mapping: The Flood Mapping. Using satellite imageries are being undertaken since 1987 to help Department of Agriculture and Cooperation and State Relief Agencies and Central Water Commission. Under this, flood prone river basins of Brahmaputra, Kosi, Ganga, Indus, Godavari and Mahanadi are covered and near real time inundation and damage estimation maps are formd. Forest Monitoring: The Forest Survey of India carries out the forest cover mapping on 1: 250, 000 scale on a biennial basis. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra have used satellite based dala for preparation of forest working plans. A biodiversity characterisation at landscape level has also been taken up in four regions of the country, namely, North-Eastern Himalaya, Western Himabya, Western Ghats and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The activities related to preparation ofbiome level ecological zone maps and topographical details are nearing completion. The project is being undertaken with the sponsorship of the Department of Biotechnology. A few medicinal plant colonies in the Himalayas like Hyppophae rhamnoides, Ephedra gerardiana and Taxus baccata have been mapped. Irrigatron Command Areas: Under the sponsorship of the Central Water Commission, 14 large irrigated commands covering five states (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and West Bengal) extending to an area of 3.12 Mha (million hectare) have been taken up for monitoring using satellite data. So far evaluation of seven command areas has been completed.
Snow-melt Run-off Prediction: Forecasting and monitoring of Snow-melt Run-off for the Satellite River Basin is being carried out since 1994 with the sponsorship of Bhakra-Beas Management Board. The forecast is made every year by the first week of April, which is further updated subsequently. Integrated Land and Water Resources Development: Generation of data for Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD) for 84 Mha area covering 175 districts located in 28 States have been completed and similar work has been extended to Koraput-Bolangir-Kalahandi (KBK) region of Orissa. The Department of Land Resources under the Ministry of Rural Development is now working pertaining to institutionalising IMSD for implementation. Wasteland Mapping: The Wasteland Mapping has been carried out in five phases during 1986 − 2000 on a 1: 50, 000 scale under the sponsorship of the Department of Land Resources under Ministry of Rural Development.