CBSE (UGC) NET Paper 1 Technology: Space Science And Communication Milestones
Space Science And Communication Milestones
- 1962: Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) established by the Department of Atomic Energy and work on establishing Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) started.
- 1963: First sounding rocket launched from TERLS (November 21, 1963).
- 1965: Space Science & Technology Centre (SSTC) established in Thumba.
- 1967: Satellite Telecommunication Earth Station set up at Ahmedabad. 1968: TERLS dedicated to the United Nations (February 2, 1968).
- 1969: Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) established under Department of Atomic Energy (August 15, 1969) 1972: Space Commission and Department of Space set up. ISRO brought under DOS (June I, 1972). 1972 − 76: Air-borne remote sensing experiments.
- 1975: ISRO becomes Government Organisation (Ap, il1, 1975). First Indian Satellite, Aryabhata, launched (April 19, 1975). 1975 − 76 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) conducted. 1977 Satellite Telecommunication Experiments Project (STEP) carried out:
- 1979: Bhaskara-I, an experimental satellite for earth observations, launched (June 7, 1979). First Experimental launch of SLV-3 with Rahini Technology Payload on board (August 10, 1979). Satellite could not be placed in orbit. 1980: Second Experimental launch ofSLV-3. Rohinisatellite successfully placed in orbit (July 18, 1980).
- 1981: First developmental launch of SLV-3. RS-Dl placed in orbit (May 31, 1981) APPLE, an experimental geo-stationary communication satellite successfully launched (June 19, 1981). Bhaskara-II launched (November 20, 1981).
- 1982: INSAT-lA launched (April 10, 1982). Deactivated on September 6, 1982.
- 1983: Second developmental launch of SLV-3. RS-D2 placed in orbit (April 17, 1983). INSAT-IB, launched (August 30, 1983). 139
- 1984: I ndo-Soviet manned space mIssion (April 1984).
- 1987: First developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-1 satellite on board (March 24, 1987). Satellite could not be placed in orbit.
- 1988: Launch of first operational Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, lRS-lA (March 17, 1988). INSAT-IC launched (July 21, 1988). Abandoned in November 1989. Second developmental launch-of ASLV with SROSS-2 on board (July 13, 1988). Satellite could not be placed in orbit.
- 1990: INSAT-I0 launched (June 12, 1990). 1991: Launch of second operational Remote Sensing satellite, IRS-LB (August 29, 1991).
- 1992: Third developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-C on board (May 20, 1992). Satellite placed in orbit. INSAT-2A, the ft. Rst satellite of the indigenously built. Second-generat. Ion INSAT series. Launched (July 10, 1992).
- 1993: INSAT-2B, the second satellite in the INSAT-2 series, launched (July 23, 1993). First developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-IE on board (September 20, L993). Satellite could not. Be placed in orbit.
- 1994: Fourth developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-C2 on board (May 4, 199--1). Satellite placed in orbit. Second developmental launch ofPSLV with IRS-P2 on board (October 15, 1994). Satellite successfully placed in polar sun synchronous orbit.
- 1995: I NSAT-2C, the third satellite m the INSAT-2 series, launched (December 7, 1995). Launch of third operational Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS-IC (December 28, 1995).
- 1996: Third developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-P3 on board (March 21.1996). Satellite placed in polar sun synchronous orbit.
- 1997: INSAT-20, fourth satellite in the INSAT series. Launched (June 4.1997). Becomes inoperable on October 4.1997 (An in-orbit satellite, ARABSAT-IC, since renamed INSAT. 2DT, was acquired in November 1997 to partly augment the INSAT system). First operational launch otPSLV with IRS-1 D on board (September 29, 1997). Satellite placed in orbit.
- 1998: INSAT system capacity augmented With the readiness of INSAT-2DT acquired from ARABSAT (January 1998).
- 1999: INSAT-2E, the last satellite In the multipurpose INSAT-2 series, launched by Ariane from French Guyana (April 3.1999). Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT), launched by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (pSLV-C2) along with Korean KITSAT-3 and German OLR-TUBSAT from Sriharikotn (May 26, 1999).
- 2000: I NSAT-3B, the first satellite in the third generation INSAT-3 series. Launched by Artane from Kurou French Guyana (March 22, 2000).
- 2001: Successful light test of Geosynchronous Satelhte Launch Vehicle (OSLV) (April 18, 2001). with an experimental satellite GSAT on board. Successful launch of PSLV-C3 (October 22, 2001) placing three satellites India's TES, Belgian PROBA and German BI RD. In to Polar sunsynchronous orbit.
- 2002: Successful launch of INSAT-3C by Ariane from Kourou. French Guyana (January 24, 2002). ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C4, successfully launched KALPANA-l satellite from Sriharikota (September 12, 2002). Succcssful launch ofINSAT-3A by Arlane from Kourou French Guyana (April 10, 2003), The Second developmental launch ofGSLV-02 with GSAT-2 on board from Sriharikota (May 8, 2003). Successful launch of INSAT-3E by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana (September 28, 2003), ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV. C5, successfully launched RESOURCESAT 1 (lRS-P6) satellite from Srihankota (October 17, 2003).
India launches EDUSAT the ultimate satellite for educational services (September 2004). India has become the potential of space science and technology for the socio-economic development of the society soon after the launch of Sputnik by erstwhile USSR in 1957. The Indian space efforts started in the sixties with the establishment of Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station near Thiruvananthapuram for the investigation of ionosphere using sounding rockets. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), was established in the year 1969 under the Department of Atomic Energy. The Government of India gave fillip to the space activities by formally setting up Space Commission and the Department of Space (DOS) in June 1972 and ISRO was also brought under Department of Space. Over the last three decades, India has achieved an enviable progress in the design, development and operation of space systems, as well as using the systems for vital seryices like telecommunication, television broadcasting, meteorology, disaster warning and natural resources survey and management.
The space programme has become largely self-reliant with capability to design and build its own satellites for providing space services and to launch them using indigenously designed and developed launch vehicles. The successful first test flight of Geosrynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) from Sriharikota on April 18, 2001 was the most significant milestone of the Indian space programme. The launch unequivocally demonstrated India's capability to place satellites into geo-synchronous transfer orbits. India is among the 6 nations in the world to achieve such a capability. The launch of OS LV is the culmination of efforts of various DOS centres and other institutions that involved complex interfaces between scientific and technological disciplines, industries and research institutions. Another crucial milestone during the year was the succeasfulflight of PSLV-C3 on October 22, 2001 from Sriharikota. In this fifth consecutively successful flight, PSLV placed three satellites-India's Technology Experiment Satellite, TES, Belgian PROBA and German BIRD into their intended polar sun-synchronous orbit. The requircment of a higher orbit for the Belgian PROBA compared to other two satellites was successfully met by a flight manoeuvre. Both German and Belgian satellites were launched under commercial agreements.