CBSE (UGC) NET Paper 1: Introduction to Higher Education

Higher education

Higher education is given by:

  1. Universities-It comprise of agricultural universities and medical universities categorised into Central Universities which are being financed directly by the Ministry of Human Resources Development and State Universities, incorporated and financed by different states.

  2. “Deemed to be universities” single-faculty, multi subjects institutions which enjoy the same academic status and privileges of a university

  3. Institutions of National Importance, university-level institutions funded by the central government. These include the Indian Institutes of Technology. Most universities belong to the affiliating and teaching type in which departments impart instruction at the postgraduate level and undertake research. Agricultural universities stress research and extension work. At last, there are technological universities and ten open universities. There are also research institutions, administered by the Indian Council of Social Science Research and research laboratories, as well as more than 10, 000 colleges. Most of which are affiliated to universities. Universities are administered by the statutory bodies such as the Academic Council. The Senate or Court and the Executive Council Syndicate. Funding for State universities generally comes from the State governments and the University Grants Commission. Higher education falls mainly under its jurisdiction. The Association of Indian Universities (AIU) represents universi ties and has the responsibility for all matters within the higher education sector other than funding. Professional institutions are integrated by different entities. The All-India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) instituted in the year 1987 and is accountable for the integration of technical and management Education institutions. Bodies such as State Councils of Higher Education were established currently. Non-university level: On completion of Standard X, students may opt for-

    1. Secondary school studies pertaining to the Higher Secondary School Certificate.

    2. Craftsman or apprenticeship courses provided in Industrial Training Institutes through the Craftman Training Scheme and Apprenticeship Scheme and leading to Trade Certificates or

    3. Entering a Polytechnic where they provide one to three-year diploma courses in all the subjects except Medicine. There are around 1200 Polytechnics in India. Although planned to train technicians, with a rising number now provide courses leading to degrees and even post-graduate diplomas and certificates. Courses like the Higher National Diploma i.e.. HND needs Standard XII.