CBSE (UGC) NET Paper 1 Higher Education: University level studies
University level studies
- First stage: Bachelor: Basically, First degree need three years'fulltime study leading to Bachelor of Arts, Science and Commerce degrees. Entrance to & Honours course may require a higher pass mark in the higher secondary or pre-university examinations. An Honours degree does not basically involve longer study hut indicates greater specialization. In professional subjects: Courses last for four to five and a half years. The Bachelor of Laws (LLB) can either be taken as an integrated flrst degree course (five years) or as a two to three-year course taken as a second degree.
- Second stage: Master's Degree: A Master's Degree in Arts, Science and Commerce basically requires two years of study after a first degree. Most. Are cow-seworkbased without a thesis. The Indian Institutes of Technology provide three semester studies leading to ME, MSc (Engg) and MTech degrees. Master's courses in Engineering and Technology normally require two years ‘study after a first professional degree. Candidates must qualify through the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering Colleges. I n Medicine and Surgery, the Master's degree takes two years after MBBS or BDS. The Master of Technology is awarded after a study period of three semesters. Students must complete a research project which usually takes one semester. The Master of Computer Applications (MCA) is awarded after three years’ study beyond the Bachelor's Degree.
- Third stage: Master of Philosophy, PHD: One and a half-year MPhil programmes are open to those who have completed their second stage postgraduate degree. It is a preparatory programme for doctoral level studies. Various universities admit MBBSIBE degree holders to PHD courses. The PHD programme involves two years'study beyond the MPhil or a minimum of three years study beyond the Master's degree and the submission of a thesis, as well as an oral examination.
- Fourth stage: DSc. DLit: The Doctor of Science (DSc) and the Doctor of Literature (Dlitt) degrees are awarded by Various universities two to three years after the PHD for ultimate contributions. Teacher education: Training of preprimary and primary/basic school teachers Teachers for lower primary classes (Standards I to V) are trained in Teacher Training Institutes (also known as Junior Basic Training Institutes or Primary Teacher Colleges) attached to State departments of education.
The course usually lasts for two years and leads to a Diploma or-a Teacher Training Certificate. Upper primary school teachers are trained in two years and the course leads to a Diploma. They must have passed the Higher Secondary School-Leaving Certificate.
Training of secondary school teachers Teachers at lower secondary level (Standards IX and X) are graduates who have completed a one-year Bachelor of education at a college affiliated to a university. Teachers at the higher secondary level (Standards XI and XU) are postgraduates who have usually completed a Master's degree followed by a one-year Bachelor in Education. Four Regional Colleges of Education provide a combined four-year integrated programme leading to a Bachelor's degree. Training of higher education teachers Teachers at colleges of education must hold an M. Ed and a PHD.
Studies for these are undertaken at a number of universities. Non-traditional studies: Distance higher education Since its inception in the year 1962 at the University of Delhi, distance education has grown considerably. There are around sixty Institutes: Directorates of distance education attached to conventional universities and ten Open Universities, consisting Indira Gandhi National Open University-with over 150 regional centers throughout India. Distance education programmes include about one hundred Degree or Diploma courses.
Many conventional universities also provide correspondence courses, which are Varioustimes supplemented by contact classes. Lifelong higher education Universities and colleges provide adult and continuing education with assistance from the uac. Programmes include Population Education, Legal Literacy, Science Education and Technology Transfer. There are also evening colleges which provide courses at undergraduate level and, in Various areas, postgraduate courses are also provideed. Other forms of non-formal education Non-university level post-secondary education consists of one-year Certificate courses and two-to three-year Diploma courses in various technical and commercial fields. They are conducted by industrial training institutes and polytechnics administered through the state departments of technical education.
National Bodies Administration & co-ordination: Responsible authorities: Ministry of Human Resources Development, Science and Technology Head: Arjun Singh Shastri Bhavan New Delhi 110001 Association of Indian Universities AIU House, 16 Kotla Marg, New Delhi 110002 University Grants Corrunission Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002 Role of governing body: Coordinates the work of the universities; establishes equivalences of degrees; acts as a bureau of information; conducts research on university development.