CBSE (UGC) NET Paper 1 Research and Teaching Aptitude: Research Types

Types of Research

There are various classifications of a research. Some of the crucial classifications are stated below:

  1. Exploratory and conclusive research: Exploratory or formulate research aims at probing into phenomenon to formulate a more precise research problem or to develop a hypothesis. While conclusive research tests these hypothesis. Developed through exploratory research and may suggest a new idea or a new opportunity.

  2. Fundamental or pure or basis research, applied research and action research: A fundamental research is the formal and systematic process where the researcher's aim is to. Develop a theory or a model by identifying all the crucial variables in the situation and by discovering broad generalisations and principles about these variables. Applied research, applies the theory or model developed theories but to test those existing theories in actual problem situations. Action research has recently been popular in the field of social psychology, industrial psychology and education. In action research, researcher focuses upon the immediate consequences and applications of a problem of a theory or a model.

  3. Historical research, descriptive research and experimental research: Historical research describes what was. The process involves investigation, recording, analyzing and interpreting the events of the past for the purpose of discovering generalizations that are helpful in understanding the past and the present and to a limited extent, in anticipating the future. Descriptive research describes records, analyzeS'and interprets the conditions that exist, practices that prevail, beliefs, points of views or attitudes that are held processes that are going in effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. It involves some type of comparison or contrast and attempts to discover relationship between existing non-manipulated variables. It can be of various types, like survey studies, interrelationship studies casual comparative studies and development studies. Experimental research describes what will be when certain variables are carefully controlled or manipulated. The focus is on variable relationship. Deliberate manipulation is always a part of experimental method. Experimental research is the description and analysis of what will be, or what will occur, under carefully controlled conditions in which one factor is varied and the others are kept constant and can be repeated by another investigator, by the same investigator or another occasion with nearly identical results.

  4. Experimental and non-experimental research: This classification is dependent on the nature of research. An experimental research is one where the independent variables can be directly manipulated by, experimenter. It is further divided into two main types-Laboratory experiment and field experiment. A non experimental research is one where independent variables cannot be manipulated and therefore cannot be experimentally studied. A non experimental research can be divided into three main types-field, studies, expost factor research and survey research.

Other crucial types

  • Laboratory Experiment: It is the study of a problem in a situation in which some variables are manipulated and some are controlled in order to have an effect upon the dependent variable. The variables which are manipulated are known as independent variables and the variables which are controlled are known as extraneous or relevant variables. Thus in laboratory experiment the effect of manipulation of an independent variables upon the dependent variable is observed under controlled conditions.
  • Field Experiments: It is a study carried out is a more or less realistic situation or field where the experimenter successfully manipulates one or more independent variables under the maximum possible controlled conditions.
  • Field Study: It is a study which systematically discovers relations and interactions among variables in real life situations such as school, factory, community college etc. It field study the investigator depends upon the existing conditions of a field situation as well as upon the selection of subject for determining the relationship among variables.
  • Expost Facto Study: In this the investigators attempt to trace an effect which has already occurred to its probable causes. The effect becomes the dependent variable and the probable causes become the independent variable. The investigator has no direct control over such variables.
  • Survey Research: It is a technique where, the investigator or researcher studies the whole population with respect to certain sociological and psychological variables. Depending upon the ways of collecting data, survey research can be classified into different categories, namely, personal interview, main questionnaire, panel technique arid telephone survey.