Solved CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Paper (Part 1 of 5)

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Part A

Question: How is fitness and wellness beneficial to an individual? State and describe the principles of fitness. 2 + 2 + 6

Solution: Fitness benefits individual physically, mentally as well as socially. A person becomes fit, energetic, strong, mentally stable, thereby leading to flow of positive and divine thoughts which ultimately leads to making of a good and responsible citizen of the country. Fitness also makes an individual's body flexible. Due to conciousness of fitness and its practice, there is continuos blood circulation in person's body which helps him to remain fresh for a longer duration. This enhances his confidence and energy level. Due to the energy generated by the exercises, person gets immediate and sound sleep which is absolutely necessary for stable mental and social life. Also due to fitness, the body gets high immunity power which helps to fight diseases and also improves efficiency of heart and lungs by improving cardio-respiratory fitness. Hence, to conclude, it can be said that, Physical fitness leads to- “All round development of personality of the individual.”

Principles of fitness

  1. Before taking any fitness programme one go for medical check-up:

  2. Fitness program can be taken at any age.

  3. Choice of Fitness program must be based on criteria such as age, sex and ability of the person.

  4. The fitness programme should include simple as well as complex techniques.

  5. Avoid eating or drinking during a fitness session.

  6. Though following complex programme, but it should be safe and not hazardous.

  7. There should be proper gap between the meal and training session.

  8. Take care of the clothing while doing exercise.

  9. Avoid overstress and workout according to your need and capacity.

  10. The most important principle of developing physical fitness, which is to be taken care of, is the principle of overload. Question: Write about Circuit training. What does it include? Draw a diagram of circuit training along with stations. What are the main characteristics of circuit training? 5 + 5 Solution: Circuit Training includes the following steps which may be with or without apparatus. Standing Jumps Skipping Sit-Ups Dips Chin-ups Half-Squats Shuttle-Run Burpy Jumps

Circuit-Training

The characteristics of circuit-training are as follows:

  1. Correct movements are essential during circuit training. Wrong and incorrect movements may be harmful.

  2. Follow the principle- “Simple to complex.” i.e.. First do the simple exercise and move towards the complex one.

  3. Exercise sould be done with 80 − 100% efficiency to get its actual benefit.

  4. Vary the number of repetitions according to your need and efficiency.

  5. To develop strength endurance and flexibility should be the main focus.

  6. Follow the manner in which exercise to all the body parts is available.

  7. The intensity and volume of exercises shouldn't be increased in a havoc. It may lead to muscle pain.

  8. Repetition of same exercise everytime makes it tedious and ineffective at times. Hence keep them changing.

  9. It is better to make a small group and exercise together.

  10. Avoid injury oriented equipments and exercises. Question: Specify the role of sociology in sports. How physical education programme leads to leadership and value education? 2 + 4 + 4 Solution: Role of Sociology in Sports: Sociology is derived from a Latin word, “societus” meaning society and Greek word “logus” meaning study of science. It means sociology is the science of society. It has huge importance in the field of sports. Definition of Sociology: Sociology is the study of relationship of men with his environment. Definition of Sports-Sociology: Sports Sociology is the study of origin, development, organization and role of sports in human society. Role of Sociology in Sports: As Aristotle said “Man is a social animal.” He cannot be isolated from the world. He lives in the society and is a part of the society. He is in social environment since he is born. He remains among people, learns to be with them, stays with the family, goes into the outside world, learns to adjust and develop himself socially. To develop socially, Sports activities are the most convinient and easy route. The child plays with his mates and learns to know their behaviour. He learns language and various modes of movements like running, jumping, chasing, shouting, struggling etc. Apart from the physical learning of activities, he also develops mentally. He develops himself, his character and his values. He learns to exchange toys, thereby learning the feeling of giving and receiving. In this way group play leads to socialization. Through sociology athletes learns and develop qualities of co-operation and healthy competition. Sociology plays a huge role in development of an individual. As a person turns into athlete, it comes to him his own way, the way of being independent, though being connected to people around him, how to remain and manage in a group, being empathatic towards other group members, and to solve and take decision in times of problem. He learns to face odd and difficult situations, to motivate himself during those times, to stand up for himself. One realizes that both competition and cooperation are important for all round development of an individual. It helps physical education teachers to develop traits of social behaviour among players. It helps in development of moral character of athletes. Leadership and value Education: Physical Education programmes leads to leadership and value education. While playing, every player plays first for himself, to prove himself. He wants the focus of the group to be on him. He makes his best possible effort to prove his might and to show his superiority over others. In individual sport, his aim is to win and prove his supremacy over others, while in team game, he wants to prove his ability so as to get respect and leadership over one and all. Apart from the leadership skills that are developed through Physical Education and sports, the individual also develops values of his life during this phase which are essential to lead an individual life-strong moral character, co-operation, forgiveness, self-respect, support, care belongingness, respect for seniors and teachers etc. In present scenario it is observed that the students lack in values, due to the cut-throat competition prevailing but with participation in games and sports they are likely to develop these values that help them become a good person and a responsible citizen. Question: Write a note on: “Games and sports as cultural heritage” 10 Solution: “Games and sports as Cultural Heritage” Culture can be defined as the behaviour that comes to us either by inheritance or by the surroundings. It is the thought process that an individual develops over a period of time during his life-time, particularly his childhood. Culture includes of our ways of living, eating habits, thoughts, customs, traditions, morals, art, literature, religion, games and sports and many other aspects of life, the basic being, the theory of how to live your life. The modern culture that has emerged, which we observe today, is not a product of sudden change or development, but has evolved over centuries of the past. It is the past that is reflected in the present culture. Also the games and sports of modern times have evolved as a modification of the games played in the past by our ancestors. History of physical activities of man is as old as civilization itself. The ancestors primitively used physical activities while they went for hunting, for procuring food, while wandering and also fighting enemies. Most of the activities were of physical nature as there were no automated systems available during that times. These physical activities included running, jumping, fighting, fishing and wrestling etc. However, as the time moved ahead, groups among people were formed and then people used physical activities just for recreation. These formed what is now known as games and sports and have now come to us in inheritance. Games such as boxing etc. Originated in the past. The culture that we have inherited is a result of mixture of various cultures. In this respect, contributions of early Egyptians, Greeks, and countries of the west cannot be forgotten who have contributed to the development of modern day games and sports. Gymnastic activities have come to us as a result of efforts of the Germans. It is they who gave heavy gymnastics apparatus like horizontal bar, vaulting horse and parallel bars etc. To the world. The British have contributed to the sports by originating and spreading ball games like football, hockey and cricket. America introduced games of volleyball, basketball and baseball. Games such as archery, wrestling and games like “Shatranj” are the contribution of Indian culture. This culture has been in case from the times of Mahabharata. Also the games like “Kabaddi” and “Kho-Kho” are the contribution of India to the world. Thus, it is implied that these games, sports and other physical activities are not current creation but is a legacy that we have adopted from the past ancestors. Only some modification is brought to these physical activites to make it convinient for us. Question: Describe the following:

    1. Sports environment

    2. Essential elements of sports environment

    3. Role of individual in improving sports environment

    4. Prevention of sports related accidents

    5. Physical education as a medium to improve sports environment 2 × 5

    Solution:

    1. Sports Environment: Sports environment means the surroundings available to the athlete. Sports environment matter a lot in the success of a player. If the player gets availability of proper infrastructure, equipments and conducive ambience for sports, proper ground, trainer/Coach and experienced or senior players to practice, his success ratio would be high compared to one who is devoid of such environment.

    2. Essential elements of sports environment: Essential element of sports environment can be many but in a school, it can be mentioned as follows: a. Ground for outdoor sports. b. Indoor Hall. c. Swimming Pool. d. Necessary safe Equipments. e. Qualified Physical Education teachers and specialized coaches. f. Inter School Competitions.

    3. Role of individual in improving sports environment: Individuals can play their role to improve the sports environment. They can motivate others to play and participate in games. They can spread what are the benefits of playing games. These individuals can be a player, the captain of the team or sports captain of the school.

    4. Prevention of Sports related accidents: The role of Physical Education Teachers and Trainers/Coaches is very important during outdoor games. It should be seen that the ground is levelled and has no obstacle. The equipments of play should be safe. If not, proper training must be given to use them. Major attention to the children should be given when they are playing outdoor games like Cricket, Hockey, Football, Archery, Javelin Throw, Discus Throw, Shot-put etc. The most important is not to leave students unattended. The Physical Education Teacher should be there to provide help at the time of injury or accident that may happen during the game.

    5. Physical Education as a medium to improve sports environment:

    Physical Education is one of the important ways to improve sports environment. With more interest created of students towards play and games, the school will be providing proper ambience for development of sports activities. Along with providing practical knowledge, theoritical knowledge of play should also be given to the students. Hence with increased participation in games, there will be improved sports environment in the school.

    Question: Describe the terms yoga and asanas. Also explain the role of yoga for improving performance in competitive sports. 3 + 3 + 4

    Solution:

    Yoga: Yoga means “union of soul with the God.” The word ‘Yog’ is derived from Sanskrit word “Yuj” which means to join or union or to bind. In other words “union of soul with God” The correct and exact meaning of yoga refers to a task which is performed with excellence and proficiency.

    Asana: Asana is the third step of Yoga, the first two being Yama and Viyayama. The Asanas are are postures which are very helpful in maintaining good health. We can divide asana (poses) in following parts.

    1. Developing Postures.

    2. Meditative Postures.

    3. Relaxative Postures.

    The yoga improves your performance in competitive sports in the following manner:

    1. Flexibility

    2. Strength

    3. Endurance

    4. Balance and rhythm

    5. Meditation

    6. Relaxation

    Asana: Asana means holding the body in a particular posture to bring stability to the body and poise to mind thoughts. As you practise asanas more, your body becomes more stable and flexible and also strong. Your mind gets freshened.

    Role of yoga for improving performance in competitive sports: Yoga should be done along with other fitness methods of physical nature. This helps to improve performance in competitive sports.

    1. Improvement in flexibility-Regular practice of yoga provides flexibility in muscles and joints. This is absolute necessary for an athlete. Without this he is not complete to reach a desired standard.

    2. Strength and Endurance: Regular practice of yoga helps in improving general strength and endurance. The yogasanas give strength to certain muscles as you keep your body in a certain position for some period of time. Also breathing processes like Pranayama helps in improving breathing capacity and lungs become more efficient resulting in improved performance.

    3. Balance and Rhythm-Regular practice of asanas helps in improving balance and rhythm of the body.

    4. Meditation: Meditation leads the player to be more focused and concentrated towards his goal. It helps in providing psychological strength to the player, thereby making him more confident for achieving his goal.

    5. Relaxation: After each training session and practice, a player need to relax. Yoga and asanas are the best way to relax.

    6. At the time of injury and in off Season: When a player is injured and he cannot practise his play, he can remain fit by practising asanas. Also when there is off-season, the player can focus on his fitness by regularly practising asanas and strengthen his muscles through yoga without getting stressed.

Part B

Question: What do you understand by first aid of sports injuries? Explain the terms sprain, strain, abrasion and fracture. 2 × 5

Solution: First aid in case of sports-injuries: The help/assistance/treatment provided to the injured player at the ground/in the immediate vicinity of the place of injury is called first aid of sport injury.

The principle of PRICES (i.e.. Prevention, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation and Support) is applicable for the first 24 − 48 hours to an injured player, except for if he has a fracture.

Sprain-Injury to ligament is called sprain.

Strain-Injury to muscles and tendons is called strain.

Classification of sprain and strain

  1. In the Ist Degree, Fibour destruction in body does not occur.

  2. At the IInd Degree, Fibour destruction that takes place is at a moderate scale.

  3. At IIIrd Degree, the fibour gets totally destructed. Symptoms of strain and sprain are as under:

    1. Pain

    2. Swelling

    3. Loss of movement

If the injury is acute, it pains more.

However if there is chronic injury, Pain is less while swelling is more.

Treatment

For the treatment in case fibour destruction is minimal, following therapies are suitable.

  1. PRICE-Prevention, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation, Support

  2. Physiotherapy.

However for treatment at IIIrd Degree, Surgery is required.

For muscles-Catgut surgery.

For ligaments-Silk or metallic wire is used for surgery.

Abrasion-Abrasion is a superficial injury of skin due to rubbing or scraping.

Causes-The main reason of abrasion is falling on hard or rough surface. This also maybe due to continuous irritation of skin by uncomfortable shoes, rough fabric, seams in clothing or sports equipment such as helmets and pads.

Fractures-Fractures is defined as discontinuity in bone or as the broken bones.

The fractures are of various types.

  1. Simple fracture.

  2. Compound fracture.

  3. Communicate fracture.

Fractures may be:

  1. Transverse fracture.

  2. Oblique fracture.

  3. Spiral fracture.

  4. Compressor fracture.

The principle of treatment in plaster which is undertaken at the time of fracture:

  1. To reduce Odessa.

  2. To get relieve in pain.

  3. To maintain circulation of blood in the body.

  4. To teach the patient to use special appliances and make use of them.

Question: Write the following about the game/sport of your choice (any five):

  1. List of fundamental skills

  2. Two specific warming up exercises

  3. Two terminologies of the game/sport

  4. Name of two sports awards which is given by the Govt. Of India

  5. Two important tournaments and venues which are being conducted since last two years

  6. Name of two personalities with brief out line of their achievements in their respective games

  7. Latest changes in the rules of game/sport 2 × 5

Solution:

  1. List of fundamental skills

    1. Grip

    2. Stance

    3. Drop

    4. Lob

    5. Smash

    6. Drive

    7. Clear

  2. Two specific warming up exercises

    1. Shuttle-run

    2. Footwork/Shadow-practice

  3. Two terminologies of the game/sport

    1. Rally

    2. Deuce

  4. Name of two sports awards which is given by the Govt. Of India

    1. Arjuna Award

    2. Padma Shri

  5. Two important tournaments and venues which are being conducted since last two years

    1. All England Championship

    2. Thomas and Uber Cup

  6. Name of two personalities with brief out line of their achievements in their respective games

    1. Prakash Padukone (National and all England Champion)

    2. P Gopichand (National and All England Champion)

  7. Latest changes in the rules of game/sport

    1. The game of badminton is now played for 21 points instead of 15-points.

    2. Earlier if server did the fault the serve was changed. Now every fault is scored.

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