Solved CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Paper (Part 2 of 5)

Part A

Question: How socialization takes place through sports and games at national and international level? 2 + 4 + 4

Solution: Socialization through Sports and Games at National and International Level:

Sports and games play a significant role in socializing people. At any national level sports and games competition, when players from different states and regions meet each other, they come in contact of different cultures and systems each state or region has. They speak different languages, exhibit different eating habits, have different dressing sense and dress code. Players while being with each other, learn the different cultures and see their use practically. They share their thoughts, thought process, training practices with each other. They meet dignitaries from whom they learn way of life. They get motivation. They roam about with their new friends at the new place and come to know about the culture of that place, thereby socializing themselves.

At the international level also the players from different countries represent their own country and its culture. They learn to make friends, adjust with them and their cultures and living styles. New friends are made. Behiviour of caring and sharing forms a part of the individual personality. They experience modern facilities and latest equipment with latest technology. For example-In 2008 Bejing Olympics, the world has seen the presentation put-up by China. Players from different corners met, played, performed, lost and won which gave them a lesson to co-operate, compete, care and share from each others. Hence it can be seen that participating in games at any level, players learn a lot many things from each other which improves their behaviour and they result to be a good citizen for their country.

Question: “Games and Sports as cultural heritage” Justify.

Solution: “Games and sports as Cultural Heritage”

Culture can be defined as the behaviour that comes to us either by inheritance or by the surroundings. It is the thought process that an individual develops over a period of time during his life-time, particularly his childhood. Culture includes of our ways of living, eating habits, thoughts, customs, traditions, morals, art, literature, religion, games and sports and many other aspects of life, the basic being, the theory of how to live your life. The modern culture that has emerged, which we observe today, is not a product of sudden change or development, but has evolved over centuries of the past. It is the past that is reflected in the present culture. Also the games and sports of modern times have evolved as a modification of the games played in the past by our ancestors.

History of physical activities of man is as old as civilization itself. The ancestors primitively used physical activities while they went for hunting, for procuring food, while wandering and also fighting enemies. Most of the activities were of physical nature as there were no automated systems available during that times. These physical activities included running, jumping, fighting, fishing and wrestling etc. However, as the time moved ahead, groups among people were formed and then people used physical activities just for recreation. These formed what is now known as games and sports and have now come to us in inheritance. Games such as boxing etc. Originated in the past.

The culture that we have inherited is a result of mixture of various cultures. In this respect, contributions of early Egyptians, Greeks, and countries of the west cannot be forgotten who have contributed to the development of modern day games and sports.

Gymnastic activities have come to us as a result of efforts of the Germans. It is they who gave heavy gymnastics apparatus like horizontal bar, vaulting horse and parallel bars etc. To the world. The British have contributed to the sports by originating and spreading ball games like football, hockey and cricket. America introduced games of volleyball, basketball and baseball.

Games such as archery, wrestling and games like “Shatranj” are the contribution of Indian culture. This culture has been in case from the times of Mahabharata. Also the games like “Kabaddi” and “Kho-Kho” are the contribution of India to the world.

Thus, it is implied that these games, sports and other physical activities are not current creation but is a legacy that we have adopted from the past ancestors. Only some modification is brought to these physical activites to make it convinient for us.

Question: Describe the following:

  1. General fitness
  2. Specific fitness
  3. Recreational fitness
  4. Calisthenics and fitness
  5. Jogging and fitness 2 × 5

Solution:

  1. General Fitness: General fitness is the fitness that you derive from regular workouts which enhance your body strength and flexibility. This can be done with or without equipment. It is advisable that workouts are under under proper supervision of an expert coach/physical education teacher. It is also suggested that you wear comfortable clothes and proper footwear while workout.
  2. Specific fitness: It refers to fitness for a specific purpose or specific sport. One sport needs different sort of workout than other sport. There are different sports exercises according to the requirements of each sport. It is suggested that you do proper warming up exercise before starting a work-out session and also cooling down exercise at the end of the session.
  3. Recreation Fitness: It refers to the fitness that you gain by playing outdoor games. The fitness is called recreational fitness as there is no specific exercise or schedule that you need to follow to get this fitness. The games that you play automatically keeps your body fit. These games can be supposed as “Play for children” “competition for youth” and “recreation for middle-aged and old”
  4. Calisthenics and fitness: Free hand exercises or gymnastics exercises are included in calisthenics. This exercise is done to enhance the body strength, rhythm and balance in body which ultimately makes the body fit. Few examples of this sort of exercise are mass Physical Training and physical fitness drills.
  5. Jogging and Fitness: Running with low intensity is called jogging. Jogging has many advantages over casual walking exercise. It increases the blood circulation in body along with making the body fit. If a person does jogging daily for 15 − 20 minutes for 2 − 3months and he is likely to achieve certain level of fitness. It is advisable that the person does some sort of stretching exercises after the jogging session.

Question: How physical education helps in creating positive environment? How it helps in improving performance during play? How does it prevent sports related injuries? 4 + 3 + 3

Solution: Physical education leads to the overall development of a child. It directly develops the physical health of the child and indirectly leads to the development of mental, social and cultural health. As he indulges in physical activities, he achieves fitness in his both with increased strength and flexibility. Along with it, he develops good apetite which leads to healthy food habits. The child gets mentally active. His thought process catches up speed. His decision making capability increases. As he is involved in constructive activities, his mind wouldn't waiver towards antisocial activites. He also learns to cooperate and adjust with others, sharing with others and caring for others which develops him socially. He learns sportsman spirit. This leads to creation of positive environment around the child.

Physical Education also helps in improving sports performance and improve it. The person gets to learn through the methods of training and conditioning, principles of load and recovery, fundamental skills of games and sports, tactics and strategies of the game a player. These are essential if he has to perform better. He also has to focus on principles of diet and nutrition, rest and recovery, prevention and treatment of injuries. This increases his ability to perform well.

Physical education teachers and coaches teach and practically give the training about the safety measures and safety equipment used in sports. The player also learns various techniques by following which he can reduce chances of sports related injuries and accidents.

Question: Write short notes on any five:

  1. Origin of yoga
  2. Effect of yoga on individual
  3. Role of yoga in sports
  4. Meditation
  5. Pranayam
  6. Asanas 2 × 5

Solution:

  1. Origin of Yoga: Yoga is of Indian origin. No particular evidence is available of its origin. However extracts of Yoga are found in every epic of India such as the Upnishads, the Purans, the Bhagvad Geeta as well as in the Ayurvedic literature. It is worldwide accepted that yoga is one of the best form of exercise.
  2. Effect of yoga on individual: There are eight steps of yoga-Yama, Viyama, Asana, Pranayama, Prathyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and samadhi. If these steps are properly adhered to, regularly, it presents a miraculous result. The person develops discipline in his life along with attaining of mental peace and physical fitness. He can also cure many diseases through Yoga.
  3. Role of yoga in sports: Regular Yoga leads to discipline which is important for athletes. Apart from the regular workout that you do, if Yoga is practised, one develops certain many aspects of fitness like-flexibility, strength, endurance, balance and rhythm. By following all the eight steps, a person achieves mental strength along with concentrated focus. Yoga also helps in relaxation after doing strenuous of training.
  4. Meditation-Also known as Dhayana, meditation has immense benefits. It improves concentration and relaxes the mind. It also helps in the treatment of depression.
  5. Pranayama: Prana and Ayama-It means “Prana ka Ayam” or “Expansion of life” It is basically a set of breathing processes that improves respiratory fitness. Types of pranayama are:
  6. Shitli Pranyama
  7. Shitkari Pranyama
  8. Vijayi Pranyama
  9. Bhastrika Pranyama etc.
  10. Asanas: Asana means holding the body in a particular posture to bring stability to the body and poise to mind thoughts. As you practise asanas more, your body becomes more stable and flexible and also strong. Your mind gets freshened. It is the third step of Ashtanga yoga which is to be practised after practising yama and niyama.

Question: What do you mean by the concept of training? Explain briefly conditioning, general training, specific training and strength training. 2 × 5

Solution: Concept of Training

Training-Training is a process of preparation for some task.

Sports training-Sports training is the basic form of preparation of sportsman for a particular post.

OR-Sports training is a scientific process of training a sprotsman which aims at preparing him for higher performance in sports competitions.

Aims of sports-training

  1. Development of physique of the player

  2. Conditioning of body for specific sports.

  3. To learn technical skills properly.

  4. To improve physical fitness of the individual.

  5. Psychological development of the individual.

Conditioning-Our body needs to get adjusted to certain conditions before we take to physical exercises. For this balancing between body and the factors, conditioning is required. These factors are temperature, surface load and specific skills of the required sport.

General Training: General fitness is the fitness that you derive from regular workouts which enhance your body strength and flexibility. This can be done with or without equipment. It is advisable that workouts are under under proper supervision of an expert coach/physical education teacher. It is also suggested that you wear comfortable clothes and proper footwear while workout.

Specific training: It refers to fitness for a specific purpose or specific sport. One sport needs different sort of workout than other sport. There are different sports exercises according to the requirements of each sport. It is suggested that you do proper warming up exercise before starting a work-out session and also cooling down exercise at the end of the session.

Strength Training: Method adopted to improve strength is called strength training. Strength is defined as the ability to develop resistance or act against diseases.

Type of strength

  1. Maximum strength

  2. Explosive strength

  3. Strength endurance

Methods of improving strength

  1. Physical exercises

  2. Weight training

  3. Circuit training

  4. Contrast method

  5. Decreasing resistance-Constant repetitions.

  6. Changing resistance-Changing repetitions.

Part B

Question: Describe the first aid measures and rehabilitation process of injuries related to sports and games. 5 + 5

Solution: The First aid measures and rehabilitation process of injuries related to sports and games can be described minimally through a principle which is known as PRICES (Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation and Support). All injuries during sports except fracture or dislocation can be treated in the initial 24 − 48 hours with this principle. It is a sort of first aid after which medical assistance is required. Treatment and rehabilitation can be done through various physiotherapy treatments and modalities.

These are:

  1. Cryotherapy-It is a therapy in which cold is used as modality i.e.. Ice packs, ice bags, ice massage and cold water.
  2. Hydrotherapy-Water is used as heat exchange medium in this therapy.
  3. Wax bath-Treatment by using hot wax is known as wax bath.
  4. Infra Red Lamp-Treatment by infra red rays is done in this therapy.
  5. Ultra-Sound Machine-Treatment of injury by ultra sonic rays is the base which forms this therapy.
  6. Short wave diathermy-Treatment through SWD Machine is the way of treatment through this therapy.
  7. IFT-Interferential Therapy-Treatment through electric current through electrodes is done.

Explanation of PRICE-P-Protection-Do not try massaging or pressurizing the injured part so as to lead to further injury.

R-Rest-Give rest to the injured part and restrict the movement.

I-Ice-Apply ice to the injured part, rubbing it continuosly for 15 − 20 minutes. This should be repeated 3 − 4 times in a day, within first 24 − 48 hours of injury.

C-Compression-Compress the injured part with a crape bandage to restrict the movement and blood oozing, if any.

E-Elevation-Raise the injured part with the slings, so as to stop blood oozing out of the body.

S-Support-Support the injured part to avoid painful movement until medical assistance is provided.

Question: Write the following about the game/sport of your choice (any five):

  1. (i) List of fundamental skills
  2. (ii) Two specific warming up exercises
  3. (iii) Two terminologies of the game/sport
  4. (iv) Name of two sports awards which is given by the Govt. Of India
  5. (v) Two important tournaments and venues which are being conducted since last two years
  6. (vi) Name of two personalities with brief out line of their achievements in their respective games
  7. (vii) Latest changes in the rules of game/sport 2 × 5
  8. Solution:
  9. (i) List of fundamental skills
  10. a. Grip
  11. b. Stance
  12. c. Drop
  13. d. Lob
  14. e. Smash
  15. f. Drive
  16. g. Clear
  17. (ii) Two specific warming up exercises
  18. a. Shuttle-run
  19. b. Footwork/Shadow-practice
  20. (iii) Two terminologies of the game/sport
  21. a. Rally
  22. b. Deuce
  23. (iv) Name of two sports awards which is given by the Govt. Of India
  24. a. Arjuna Award
  25. b. Padma Shri
  26. (v) Two important tournaments and venues which are being conducted since last two years
  27. a. All England Championship
  28. b. Thomas and Uber Cup
  29. (vi) Name of two personalities with brief out line of their achievements in their respective games
  30. (a) Prakash Padukone (National and all England Champion)
  31. (b) P Gopichand (National and All England Champion)
  32. (vii) Latest changes in the rules of game/sport
  33. a. The game of badminton is now played for 21 points instead of 15-points.
  34. b. Earlier if server did the fault the serve was changed. Now every fault is scored.