CBSE-2016 Syllabus for Biotechnology Classes XI

An unprecedented growth of human knowledge in the field of Biological Sciences coupled with equally significant developments in the field of technology have brought significant changes into existing social and economic systems. The emerging field of Biotechnology is likely to further enhance the applications of Science and Technology in the service of human welfare. Modern Biotechnology processes encompass a wide range of new products such as antibiotics, vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and many more. Furthermore, developments in recombinant DNA technology have yielded numerous new useful products in the fields of healthcare and agriculture. The present syllabus takes care of all these aspects. Due emphasis has been laid on familiarizing the learners with the fundamental concepts, basic techniques and their applications. It is expected that the knowledge gained through the study of different topics and the skills acquired through the prescribed practical work will make the learners competent to meet the chal enges of academic as well as professional courses after studying the subject at senior secondary stage.


The broad objectives of teaching Biotechnology at senior secondary level are:

  • To help the learners know and understand basic facts and concepts in the subject at elementary stage.
  • To expose the students to different basic processes and basic techniques used in Biotechnology
  • To familiarize the learners to understand the relationship of the subject to health, nutrition, environment, agriculture and industry etc.
  • To develop conceptual competence in the learners so as to cope up with professional courses in future career.
  • To acquaint students with different applications of Biotechnology in everyday life.
  • To develop an interest in students to study biotechnology as a discipline.

Course Structure of class XI (Theory) 70 Marks and 180 Periods

Unit I Biotechnology Within Your Reach 5 Marks (20 Periods)

Chapter I: Introduction to Biotechnology

Historical Perspectives Production Strategies in Biotechnology Quality Control Product Safety Good Manufacturing Practices Good Laboratory Practices Intellectual Property Global market Public Perception Biotechnology in India and Global Trends

Unit II Biomolecules 20 Marks (50 Periods)

Chapter I: Building Blocks of Biomolecules-Structure and Dynamics 8 Marks (20 Periods)

Building Blocks of Carbohydrates-Sugars and Their Derivatives Building Blocks of Proteins-Amino Acids Building Blocks of Lipids-Simple FattyAcids, Sphingosine, Glycerol and Cholesterol Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids-Nucleotides Biochemical Transformations

Chapter II: Structure and Function of Macromolecules 7 Marks (20 Periods)

Carbohydrates-The Energy Givers Proteins-The Performers Enzymes-The Catalysts Lipids and Biomembranes-The Barriers Nucleic Acids-The Managers

Chapter III: Biochemical Techniques 5 Marks (10 Periods)

Techniques Based on Molecular Weight or Size Techniques Based on Polarity or Charge Techniques Based on Spectroscopy Techniques Based on Solubility

Unit III Cell and Development 20 Marks (50 Periods)

Chapter I: The Basic Unit of Life 8 Marks (20 Periods)

  • Cell Structure and Components Tissues and Organs Stem cells
  • Biodiversity Organization of Life

Chapter II: Cell Growth and Development 7 Marks (20 Periods)

  • Cell Division
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Communication
  • Movement
  • Nutrition
  • Gaseous Exchanges
  • Internal Transport
  • Maintaining the Internal Enviornment
  • Reproduction
  • In Vitro Fertilization
  • Animal and Plant Development
  • Immune Response inAnimals
  • Programmed Cell Death
  • Defense Mechanisms in Plants

Chapter III: Cellular Techniques 5 Marks (10 Periods)

Microscopy Cell Sorting, Cell Fractionation, Cell Growth Determination

Unit IVGenetics and Molecular Biology 25 (60 Peiods)

Chapter I: Principles of Genetics 10 Marks (25 Periods)

  • Historical Perspective
  • MultipleAlleles
  • Linkage and Crossing Over
  • Genetic Mapping
  • Gene Interaction
  • Sex-Linked Inheritance
  • Extranuclear Inheritance
  • Quantitative Inheritance
  • Genes at Population Level
  • Discovery of DNA as Genetic Material
  • Mutations
  • DNA Repair
  • Genetic Disorders

Chapter II: Genome Function 10 Marks (25 Periods)

  • Genome Organization
  • DNA Replication
  • Fine Structure of Genes
  • From Gene to Protein
  • Transcription-The Basic Process
  • Genetic Code
  • Translation
  • Regulation of Gene Expression

hapter III: Genetical Techniques 5 Marks (10 Periods)

Chromosomal Techniques

Mutagenic Techniques

Recombination in Bacteria

Breeding Methods in Plants

PedigreeAnalysis in Humans


  1. Preparation of buffers and pH determination.
  2. Sterlization techniques
  3. Preparation of Bacterial growth medium
  4. Isolation of bacteria from curd and staining of bacteria.
  5. Study of various stages of mitosis and calculation of mitotic index.
  6. Preparation of karyotyping.
  7. Cell counting
  8. Isolation of genomic DNA.
  9. Detection of DNA by gel electrophoresis.
  10. Isolation of milk protein (Casein)
  11. Estimation of protein by Biuret method.
  12. Assaying the enzyme acid phosphate.

Scheme of Evaluation

Time is 3 Hours and 30 Marks

The scheme of evaluation at the end of session will be as under:

  • Two experiments: 20 Marks
  • Viva on experiments: 5 Marks
  • Practical record: 5 Marks