CBSE-2016 Syllabus for MultiMedia and webtechnology Classes XI and XII

Learning Objectives:

  1. To develop proficiency in Webpage Development.
  2. To develop proficiency in creating dynamic Web Interface
  3. To able to write server and client sides scripts and manage websites
  4. To design a web page using Image, Audio and Video Editing tools
  5. To understand the concept of Open Source Software.


The student will develop proficiency in the following:

  1. Managing a web-site with server/client side script.
  2. Handling web based Multimedia content in Webpage.

Class XI (Theory)

Unit Name



Introduction to Computer Systems

17 Periods (15 Theory and 2 Practicals)

17 Marks (15 Theory and 2 Practicals)


70 Periods (40 Theory and 30 Practicals)

35 Marks (25 Theory and 10 Practicals)

Web Scripting

55 Periods (30 Theory and 25 Practicals)

28 Marks (20 Theory and 8 Practicals)

MultiMedia and Authoring Tools

38 Periods (25 Theory and 13 Practicals)

20 Marks (10 Theory and 10 Practicals)


180 Periods (110 theory and 70 Practical)

100 Marks (70 Theory and 30 Practical)

Unit 1: Introduction to Computer Systems

Hardware Concepts:

Computer Organization (basic concepts): CPU, Memory (Primary and Secondary), I/O devices.

Memory Concepts:

Units: Byte, Kilo Byte (210 = 1024 Byte), Mega Byte, Giga Byte, Tera Byte, Peta Byte, ExaByte, Zetta Byte, Yotta Byte

Primary Memory: Cache, RAM, ROM

Secondary Memory: Fixed and Removable Storage-Hard Disk Drive, CD/DVD Drive, Pen Drive, Blue Ray Disk, Flash Drive, Memory cards.

Input devices: Keyboard, Mouse, Light pen, Touch Screen, Graphics Tablet, Joystick, Microphone, OCR, Scanner, Smart Card reader, Barcode reader, Biometric sensor, Web Camera.

Output Devices: Monitor/Visual Display Unit (VDU), LCD screen, Television, Printer (Dot Matrix Printer, Desk jet/Inkjet/Bubble jet Printer, Laser Printer), Plotter, Speaker.

Note: During the lab sessions, it is advised to explore various hardware components available in a Computer Lab.

Software Concepts:

Types of Software: System Software, Utility Software and Application Software.

System Software: Operating System, Compiler, Interpreter and Assembler.

Operating System: Need for operating system, Functions of Operating System (Processor Management, Memory Management, File Management and Device Management), Types of operating system-Interactive (GUI based), Real Time and Distributed; Commonly used operating systems: UNIX, LINUX, Windows, Solaris, BOSS (Bharat Operating System Solutions); Mobile OS-Android, Symbian.

GUI Components: General features, Elements of Desktop-Taskbar, Icon, Start button, Shortcuts, Folder, Recycle Bin, My Computer.

Start Menu: Program, Documents, Settings, Find/Search, Help, Run, ShutDown/Logoff, Customization of Taskbar, Start menu, Display properties (Wallpaper, Font Settings, Color Settings, Screen Savers).

Program Menu: Accessories-Calculator, Text editor, Image editor, Entertainments (Sound Recorder, Media Player).

Browsers: Mozila Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator.

Control Panel: Add new hardware; Add new software, Printer installation, Date/Time settings, Mouse and Regional Settings.

Illustration and practice of the following tasks using any one of the above Operating Systems:

Opening/Closing Windows

Creating/Moving/Deleting Files/Folders

Renaming Files/Folders

Switching between Tasks

Utility Software: Anti Virus, File Management tools, Compression tools and Disk Management tools (Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, Backup)

Application software: Office Tools-Word Processor, Presentation Tool, Spreadsheet Package, Database Management System; Domain specific tools-School Management System, Inventory Management System, Payroll System, FinancialAccounting, Hotel Management, Reservation System and Weather Forecasting System

Unit 2: Web Page Development

WWW, Domain Names, URL, IPAddress, Website, Web browser, Web Server, Web Hosting.

HTML Introduction, Content creation, SGML, HTML, creating HTML document using a text editor, Saving HTMLdocument, Editing a HTMLdocument, Viewing HTMLdocuments in a Web Browser, Switching between text editor and web browser windows to view changes made.

Web Page Authoring Using HTML: Basic Concepts:

Concept of tags and attributes, Difference between Container tag and Empty tag.

Structural Tags of HTML

Attributes of body

Inserting Breaks

Formatting Tags of HTML

Creating Lists:

Ordered Lists: Attributes of list TYPE-disc, circle, square

Definition List:

Creating Links: Internal linking; External linking; E-Mail linking Concept of URL; Absolute Links & Relative Links

Inserting Images: Inserting inline images

Adding Music: Adding music

Creating Tables: Creating Table

Creating Frames

Forms: Processing of data collection through a Form-written to a file, submitted to a database or emailed to someone.

Creating Form Interface elements-single line text box, password box, file selection box, hidden box, checkbox, radio button, button, submit button; multiline text area; dropdown list or scroll list

Document Object Model Concept and Importance of Document Object Model, Dynamic HTML documents.

Cascading Style Sheets Introduction to Cascading Style Sheet (CSS): Creating inline, embedded and external cascading style sheets


Margin Properties: MARGINS (all values); Padding Properties: PADDING (all values); Border Properties: BORDER (all values).

Positioning: Absolute and Relative; Additional Features: Assigning Classes; XML-eXtensible Markup Language: Introduction, Features, Advantages; Structure of XML:

Logical Structure, Physical Structure.

XML Markup: Element Markup, Attribute Markup.

Naming Rules:

Naming rules for elements, attributes and descriptors.

Components of XML:

Tags, Elements, Root element, Attributes, Entities; Comments in XML.

Developing DTD:

Element Declaration in a DTD: Entity Declarations, Declaring Empty Elements, Container Elements, Unrestricted Elements, Attribute Declarations

Element Content Model Element Occurrence Indicators: *, +

Character Content: PCDATA (Parseable Character data) Well Formed XML Documents, Valid XML Documents

Document Type Declaration (DTD) -Internal and External DTD Validating an XML document using a DTD using Parsers.

Developing a DTD, Developing a DTD from XML Code, either automatically or manually; Viewing XML in Internet Explorer, Viewing XML using the XML Data Source Object.

Unit 3: Web Scripting

VBScript Introduction to client side scripting using tag, VBScript Variables: Declaring variable, Naming restrictions, Assigning value to variables, Scalar variables and1-DArray, Importance of Variant Data type; VBScript Constants.

VBScript Operators:

VBScript Operators and Operator precedence.

Arithmetic Operators: + (Unary and Binary), *,/, \ (integer division), MOD, ^ Comparison Operators

Logical Operators: AND, OR, NOT String Operators: & and + (for concatenation) Control Structures in VBScript: Conditional statements

Loops: Entry controlled and Exit controlled loops; Do. Loop, While. Wend, For. Next, For Each. Next.

Inbuilt Functions of VBScript General Functions:

MsgBox function, Arguments of MsgBox function (Prompt, Buttons, Title), Return values of MsgBox function; InputBox function, Arguments of InputBox function (Prompt, Title, Default, Xpos, Ypos), Return values of InputBox function.

Conversion Functions:

Abs (), CBool (), CByte (), CInt (), CStr (), CSng (), CLng (), CDate ()

String Manipulation Functions:

Ucase (), Lcase (), Len (), Left (), Right (), Mid (), LTrim (), RTrim (), Trim (), InStr ()

Time & Date Functions:

Date (), Day (), Month (), Hour (), Minute (), Monthname (), Now ()

VBScript Procedures and Functions (User Defined): Sub procedures, Functions, passing parameters/arguments; Creating Dynamic Interface using VBScript Using VBScript with HTML form controls

Unit 4: Multimedia And Authoring Tools

Concept of Multimedia: Picture/Graphics, Audio, Video; Digital Images and Digital Image Representation, Animation, Morphing

Image Formats: TIFF, BMP, JPG/JPEG, GIF, PDF, PSD.

Applications: Poster Design, Still pictues, colored layout, Designing of-Books, magazines brochures, children's literature, narrative text handling, scripts in Indian Languages, picture books, comics, illustrations with photographs, scientific illustrations, conceptual illustrations, handling of assignment for the market.

Image Scanning with the help of scanner: Setting up Resolution, Size, File formats of images, Bitonal, Grey Scale and color options, preview the image

Graphic Tools: Image Editing Software (Photoshop/Coreldraw), GIMP

Basic Concepts of Image Creation:

Introduction, Creating, Opening and saving files, Interface elements of the tool: Menus, Toolbox, Color control icons, Mode control icons, Window controls icons.

Image Handling:

Cropping, Adjusting Image Size, Adjusting the Size of the Work Canvas, Rotating selections, Scaling an object

Operations on Layers:

Adding new layers, Dragging and Pasting selected objects on to layers, Dragging layers between files, Viewing, Hiding, Editing, Moving, Copying, Duplicating, Deleting, Merging layers, Preserving layers, UsingAdjustment layers.

Channels and Masks:

Channel palette, Showing and Hiding channels, Splitting channels in to separate image, Merging channels, Creating a quick mask, Editing masks using quick mask mode.

Painting and Editing:

Brushes palette, Brush shape, Creating and Deleting brushes, Creating Custom brushes, Setting Brush options, Saving, Loading and Appending Brushes, Options Palette; Opacity, Pressure or exposure, Paint fade-out rate, Making, Adjusting, Moving, Copying, Extending, Reducing, Pasting and Deleting selections using selection tools, Softening the edges of a selection, Hiding a selection border Sound:

Recording Sound using Sound Recorder (Capture), Sound capture through sound editing software (ex: Sound Forge), Sound editing, Noise correction, Effect enhancement; Importing audio files from external devices and saving them; Sound Quality: CD Quality, Radio Quality, Telephone Quality

Voice Recording Software:

Philips/Dragon, MIDI Player, Sound Recorder, Mono & Stereo

Sound File Format:

AIFF (Audio Input File Format from Apple Mac), MIDI, WAV, MP3, ASF (Streaming format from Microsoft)

Class XI (11th) Practical

One paper of 3 Hours and 30 Marks

Hands on Experience

  1. A topic based website is to be developed by each student using various commands covered in HTML and VBScript.
  2. Web pages should be designed with following features:
    • HTML Basic Tag
    • Anchor/Image insertion/Linking
    • Tables/Frame/Form
    • CSS
    • Buttons/Combo Box/Check Box/Text Box using VBScript
    • XML Markup/Declarations/Element Content Model

Practical File-05 marks

The practical file should be made on the following domain specific area (with supported documents and printouts)

  • Make a web page for Crime against Poor Community and view it on the browser
  • Link few more pages to the developed page, containing information about Crime and steps taken by Government (Use HTML tags to make a Static web page).
  • Use inline styling to change appearance of contents on the web page.
  • Use Style sheets (embedding or linking) to change the appearance of all the pages developed in the above case.
  • Enhance the above web site by providing data in table format and add images edited using the Image Editing Tool learnt.
  • At this step of web page development add dynamic features such as adding time and current date to the web page using VBScript
  • Collect user registration information through forms. Display selected user details using message box, saying thank you for registration (Use VB Script).

Presentation based on research-02 marks

It will be a group presentation based on a detailed study of at least two technology inventions in the field of Information Technology, which may include Inventor's name with country, out-of-box contributions, year of invention, characteristics, social impact and uses. Apartial list of inventors is in theAnnexure.

(NOTE: The project can be done in a group of 2 − 3 students)

Project-05 Marks

Knowledge domain: HTML, DHTML, CSS, VB Script, and Image Editing Software

Suggested topics:

  1. Website of a student containing personal information about student such as email address, photograph, likes, dislikes, hobbies, class, school name, achievements, favorite restaurant, favorite tourist places, ultimate aim of life, message to mankind, role model.
  2. Website of a School providing information of a school containing Moto of school, photograph of school, brief description of school, name of the principal, facilities and infrastructure, labs, sports, faculty and departments information, results and achievements of students.
  3. Website of a Restaurant providing information about types of food items, brief description about each item with pictures, price list, and availability timings.
  4. Website of a TravelAgency to provide the information about various tourist places, various modes of journey available, types of hotels available.
  5. Your blog in Native language/English/any other language


  • For developing the website collect real information from various sources.
  • It is advised to break up the above-mentioned case studies into smaller modules as per coverage of the course.
  • Teachers can provide alternative case studies also of similar kind.

Viva Voce-03 marks

During the final practical examination, five oral questions will be asked from the syllabus covered in class XI and the project developed by the student (s).

Class XII (12th) Theory

One paper of 3 Hours and 70 Marks




Database cocepts

20 Periods (10 Theory and 10 practical)

10 Marks (5 Theory and 5 practical)

Networking and Opensource Software

20 Periods (20 Theory and 0 practical)

10 Marks (10 Theory and 0 practical)

Web Page Development

85 Periods (50 Theory and 35 practical)

55 Marks (40 Theory and 15 practical)

Multimedia and Authoring Tools

55 Periods (30 Theory and 25 practical)

25 Marks (15 Theory and 10 practical)


180 Periods (110 Theory 70 practicals)

100 Marks (70 Theory 30 Practicals)

Unit 1: Database Concepts

Introduction to database concepts and its need.

Database Terminology: Data, Record/Tuple, Table, Database

Concept of Keys: Candidate Key, Primary Key, Alternate Key, and Foreign Key.

Database Tool: Using any tool, Creating and Saving Table, Defining Primary Key, Inserting and Deleting Column, Renaming Column, Inserting records, Deleting Records, Modifying Records, and Table Relationship

Unit 2: Networking and Opensource Software

Communication Technologies Evolution of Networking: ARPANET, WWW, Internet, Interspace Different ways of sending data across the network with reference to switching techniques (Circuit, Message and Packet switching) Data Communication terminologies

Concept of Channel and Data transfer rate (bps, Kbps, Mbps, Gbps, Tbps) Transmission media Twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, infrared, radio link, microwave link and satellite link Network devices Modem, RJ11 and RJ45 connectors, Ethernet Card, Hub, Switch, REPEATER, Gateway

Network Topologies: Bus, Star, Tree; Network Types PAN, LAN, WAN, MAN Network Protocol HTTP, TCP/IP, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), PPP, Remote Login (Telnet), Internet Electronic mail protocols such as SMTP, POP3 Wireless/Mobile Communication protocol such as GSM, CDMA, GPRS, WLL, SMS, VOICE MAIL, EMAIL, Chat and Video Conferencing, VoIP Mobile Telecommunication Technologies: 1G, 2G and 3G Wireless Protocols: Wi-Fi and WiMax Network Security Concepts Threats and prevention from Viruses, Worms, Trojan horse, Spams Use of Cookies, Protection using Firewall.

India IT Act, Cyber Law, Cyber Crimes, Hacking, IPR issues (Copyright and Design).

Open Source Concepts:

Proprietary and Open Source Software, Freeware, Shareware, FLOSS/FOSS, GNU, FSF, OSI, W3C.

Common FOSS/FLOSS examples (e. g. Gnu/Linux, Firefox, OpenOffice, Linux, Mozilla web browser, Apache server, MySQL, Postgres, Pango, Tomcat, PHP, Python)

Note: Teacher can introduce the students to these websites sourceforge. openrdf. opensource. linux. linuxindia. gnu

Multimedia Application: Education (use of CALtool), Entertainment, Edutainment, Virtual Reality, Digital Libraries, Information Kiosks, Video on Demand, Web Pages Video phone, Video conferencing and Health care.

Unit 3: Web Page Development

Review Of HTML/DHTML, VBScript covered in Class XI.

Installation and Managing WEB-Server:

Internet Information Server (IIS)/Personal Web Server (PWS).

Active Server Pages (ASP):

Concept of ASP, features of ASP, other equivalent tools-JSP, PHP.

Constants: String and Numeric.

Data types: Integer, Floating Point (Single, Double), String, Date, Boolean, Currency, Variant, Object.

Variables: Explicit and Implicit Declaration of variables

Operators: Arithmetic: + (Unary and Binary), *,/, \ (integer division) mod, ^; Comparison: < > ⇐ > =, <> =.

Logical: AND, OR, NOT, XOR, EQV, IMP.

String Operator: & or + (for Concatenation).

Functions: Conversion functions: Abs (), CBool (), CByte (), CInt (), CStr (), CSng (), CLng (), CDate (); String Manipulation Functions: UCase (), LCase (), Len (), Left (), Right (), Mid (), LTrim (), InStr (), RTrim (), Trim ().

Time & Date Functions: Date (), Day (), Hour (), Minute (), Month (), Monthname (), Now ().

Arrays: Declaration and use of 1 dimensional arrays.

Controls: If. Then, If. Then. Else. End If, If. Then, Else If. Then. Else. End If Select. Case. End Select, For. Next, For Each. Next, Do While. Loop, Do. Loop While, Do Until. Loop, Do. Loop Until; Procedures and Functions: Passing parameters/arguments; Concept of object model structure (client to server and server to client); Objects: Properties, Methods, Events, Setting Object properties, Retrieving Object properties, calling objects/methods.

Types of Objects: Response, Request, Application, Session, Server, ASPError.

Response Object: Write Method, AddHeader, AppendToLog, BinaryWrite, Using Shortcuts <% = value/expr%> Controlling information: Buffer, Flush Clear, End.

Request Object: Request Object Collection: QueryString, Form, ServerVariables, Cookies, ClientCertificate.


Application: Contents, Lock, Unlock, Remove, RemoveAll.

ASP Components: AD Rotator, Content Rotator, Counter, Page Counter, Permission Checker.

Text Files: Open, Read and display content from a text file.

Working on Database: Connecting with Databases: Creation of DSN, using OLE DB Inserting, Retrieving, Modifying/Updation of records from Tables in Databases using server objects (ADODB. Connection, ADODB. Recordset).

Unit 4: Multimedia and Authoring Tools

Movie File Formats: AVI, MPEG, SWF, MOV, DAT.

Embedding Audio/Video on the web page.

MultimediaAuthoring Using Macromedia Flash

Making of Simple Flash Movie, Setting Properties, Frame Rate, Dimensions, and Background Color.

Movie Frames: Concept of Frame, Frame Buffer, and Frame Rate, Creating a Key Frame.

Scene: Concept of Scene, Duplicate Scene, Add Scene, Delete Scene, and Navigating between Scenes.

Layers: Concept of Layer, Layer Properties, Layer Name, Show/Hide/Lock layers, Type of Layer-Normal/Guide/Mask, Outline Color, Viewing Layer as outline, Layer Height, Adding/deleting a layer.

Inserting Text Into the Frame, Inserting Graphical Elements into the frame, Converting Text/Graphics to Symbol, Inserting Symbol into the Frame, Setting Symbol Property (Graphics/Button/Movie), Inserting Blank Frame, Inserting Blank Key Frame, Inserting Key Frame into the Blank frame, Selecting all/Specific frames of a Layer, Copying/Pasting selected Frames.

Special Effects: Motion Tweening, Shape Tweening, Color effect, Inserting Sound Layer.

Testing a Scene and Movie.

Import/Export (Movie/Sound and other multimedia objects).

Publishing: PublishingAFlash Movie; Changing publish Settings; Producing SWF (Flash Movie) for a HTML page in any of the possible formats like GIF image, JPEG Image ( *. Jpg), PNG Image, Windows Projector ( *. Exe), Macintosh Projector ( *. Hqx), Quick Time ( *. Mov), Real Player ( *. Smil).

Testing with Publish Preview.

Class XII (12th) Practical

One paper of 3 Hours and 30 Marks

Hands on Experience-15 Marks

A website based on a particular topic has to be to be developed by each student using various commands covered in HTML, VBScript and ASP with at least 4 web pages.

Web page should be designed with following features.

  • HTML Basic Tags
  • Functions
  • Conditional and Control Statements
  • Objects: Response/Request/Application/Session/Server/ASP error
  • Image Editing using Photo Shop/Corel draw
  • Merging layers/Moving and Copying Layers
  • Use of MultimediaAuthoring (Using Macromedia Flash)
  • (Note: Output as Web page/Flash Movie/Windows Projector/Quick Time)

Practical File-05 marks

The practical file should be made on the following domain specific area (with supported documents and printouts):

  • Make a Simple web page containing almost all the tags of HTML and View that web page on the Browser.
  • Develop a Home page for Income Tax department (Simple and Textual) and store it in the directory used for Web Services on the Web-Server.
  • Enhance the home page by providing links to other sample pages (e. g. Income Tax Zone)
  • Income Tax Detail Form for an individual, Income Tax Notification, Income Tax News etc.
  • Embed Time and Date on the home page.
  • Further enhance the website by providing User Registration Page. Collect the user details and Display a new web page showing Thanks For Registration. Also write appropriate functions to validate form inputs.
  • Give a login facility to the user withAnonymous name and maintain the session till the user logs out:
  • For user log in attempts, maintain a visitor count.
  • Change the login module of the web page and now connect it to the IncomeTax User database on the server. This is to be done to store the registration detail and facilitate login to the user.
  • The login page is to be made in a way that it should also provide facility to change password, if user forget password.
  • Store some of the created or edited sound files on the Web-Server and provide links to play it.
  • Change the appearance of the web page using pictures at appropriate places (e. g. Logo of Income Tax Department, Photograph of Income Tax Building etc.)
  • Visit websites (State Govt./Local language newspaper) and get 5 different printouts in local language.

(Note: Student can also improve the case studies from class XI and enhance it further with database and multimedia support)

Project based on case study-05 Marks

Case Studies are to be divided into following parts:

Case study Part 1 (Collection, Editing and Creation of Website Resources): Create an electronic movie with various pictures, audio clipping, movie clippings, and factual text related to school/organisation.

  • Introduction to 3DAnimation (Using 3D Studio)
  • Embedding video and audio in web pages.
  • An introduction to interactive walk-through:
  • Embedding walk-through into web pages.

Case Study Part 2 (Development of Web Content with resources):

Case studies covered in class XI with database support with Login, Online Registration, Booking and/or ordering facility.

Sample Case Study

(Note: Other similar type of case studies can also be used for the project work)

Mr. Verma is the CEO of copsi soft drinks (I) Ltd. His company is having a wide network of distributors for copsi branded soft drinks. With the increase in sales and distribution network, it is required to adopt a new technological intervention in the existing system. He wants that the company should have a global presence over the widely popular medium, called World Wide Web. Assume that you are appointed as the senior person of the development team. You are required to collect the company information and its current requirement. For your easiness we had collected the details of the company and are as follows:

The company Information:

Name of the Company: Copsi soft drinks (I) Ltd. Zone: East, West, North and South Distributors: All over the world. Mr. Verma said that the web site should be able to reflect company in terms of:

  • Home Page
  • Product & Promotion Page
  • Distributor Login Page/Password Recovery Page
  • Distributor Specific Details Page
  • Registration Page for Distributor-ship
  • Company News and Flashes
  • Company Profile

Technical Details:

Web site Introduction is to be made in flash.

A proper database is to be maintained for the distributor information.

Note: For developing the above sites/movies collect the actual information from various sources. It is advised to break up the above-mentioned case studies into smaller modules as per coverage of the course. Teachers can provide alternative case studies also of similar kind.

Viva Voce-05 Marks

Five questions from topics covered in the curriculum



  1. The academic course in Multimedia And Web Technology includes one Project in each year. The Purpose behind this is to consolidate the concepts and practices imparted during the course and to serve as a record of competence.
  2. A group of 2 − 3 students as team may be allowed to work on one project.
  3. Project Content

    1. Project for class XI can be selected from the topics mentioned in the syllabus or domains on the similar lines
    2. Project for class XII should ensure the coverage of following areas of curriculum:
    1. Web page development using HTML, CSS
    2. DHTML, VBScript, ASP
    3. Image Editing Software
    4. Data Base Handling
    5. Movie making and animation
    6. Embedding sound and movie
    7. Theme of the project can be selected from any topic mentioned in syllabus or domains on the similar lines.
    8. Also students can work on the same project that they initiated in Class XI and upgrade the same.
    9. References and Websites

      1. Rajaraman, FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS, Prentice Hall of India.
      2. Peter Norton, INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER, Tata McGraw Hill
      1. Sybex, HTML Complete, BPB
      5. Simon, VBSCRIPT Interactive Course: Waite Group, BPB
    11. Open Source Concepts

      1. AS. Tanenbaum, COMPUTER NETWORK, Prentice Hall of India P. Ltd.
      2. Williams Stalling, DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS, Prentice Hall of India P. Ltd.
      3. Hancock, NETWORK CONCEPT AND ARCHITECTURES, BPB Publications.
    12. Web References opensourcew3schools
    13. Annexure

    14. Tentative Inventors and their salient contributions in the field of Information Technology
    15. Name

      Contribution/Field of Contribution


      Turing Machine

      Andrew S. Tanenbaum Bjarne Stroustrup

      Operating Systems, MINIX C + +

      Claude Shannon

      Information Theory

      Dennis Ritchie

      C (Programming Language), UNIX

      Edgar F. Codd George Boole James Gusling James Hendler

      Formulated The Database Relational Model Boolean Logic Jvl Semantic Web

      John Hopcroft


      John von Neumann

      Early Computers Von Neumann Machine

      Leonard Kleinrock Linus Torvalds Peter Wegner

      ARPANET, Queueing Theory, Packet Switching, Hierarchical Routing Linux Kernel, Git Object-Oriented Programming, Interaction (Computer Science)

      Raj Chandel


      Raj Reddy

      Artificial Intelligence, Robotics

      Richard Stallman Robert E. Kahn Sabir Bhatia Seymour Cray

      Gnu Project TCP/IP Hotmail Cray Research, Supercomputer

      Tim Berners-Lee

      World Wide Web

      Vinod Dham Pentium Processor, AMD K6 Processor

      Vinton Cerf Internet, TCP/IP