Competitive Exams: Science & Technology Affairs 2009

Science & Technology Affairs 2009

2009 is celebrated as International Year of Astronomy. 2009 is also celebrated as 400th anniversary of the first recorded astronomical observations with the telescope used by the Italian physicist. 2009 is also celebrated as: Natural Fibre Year by UN, International Gurilla Year by conservationists & environmentalists, International Year of Reconciliation.

Longest total solar eclipse of 21st century occurred on 22nd July 2009. It lasted 6 min 44 sec at Taregana in Bihar.

GM (Genetically Modified) crops are those in which the genetic material (DNA) is altered so that there is some perceived advantage either to the producer or consumer. Bt Cotton (Bacillius Thuringeinsis) is only commercially approved biotech crop in India. Govt plans to introduce GM foods particularly Tomatoes, Brinjals and Cauliflower to held meet food production target in three years time. Till date, India has only allowed the use of GM Cotton, a non food crop. India is world's second largest cotton producer. India's own Bt cotton variety: Bikaner Narma. Deep Space Network Facility is located at Byalalu, Karnataka.

Chandrayan II a lander rover mission of ISRO is scheduled to be launched in 2012. ISRO plans to hoist a capsule with two Indians on board to the Moon by 2015. Subsquently, an Indian will be launched to set foot on the Moon in 2020.

‘Aditya’ satellite will be sent by India to carry out studies on the Sun in 2012. SOHO stands for Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Probe Plus of NASA to study Sun System will be launched in 2018.

India's first nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine ‘Arihant’ was launced on 26 July 2009. It will be commissioned by 2011. It was built with the help of Russian consultants. With the launch, India join elite club of five nations USA, Russia, China, Britain and France having nuclear powered submarine capability.

Blue Brain project in Switzerland is under progress under which scientist attempt to ‘Reverse engineer’ the mammalian brain. Novo-G, world's fastest and most powerful supercomputer became operational. Novo-G got the first part of its name from the Latin term to ‘make anew, change, alter’ and the second word G from ‘Genesis’

World Forestry Day celebrated on 21 March. Theme for 2009 was ‘Sustainable Forest Management’ India currently has 23.39 % of forest area against 33 % required. India presently has 37 Tiger reserves, 99 national parks and 515 wildlife sanctuaries.

Earth Hour 2009 is a global event every year which will see landmarks around the world to go dark for an hour. Earth Day celebrated on 22 April.

Eight Millenium Development Goals (MDG) were set in Millenium Summit 2000. It has a deadline of 2015. Kerala has already achieve the targets in 2008.

India launched a Israel developed spy satellite ‘RISAT 2’ providing all weather 24 hour surveillance. Also launched experimental communication micro satellite ‘ANUSAT’ built by Chennai based Anna University.

International Space Development Conference was held at Orlando in May 2009.

Scientist have discovered 47 million year old primate fossil named ‘Ida’ (Scientific name-Darwinius masillae) which forms a crucial missing link between our evolutionary branch of life and rest of animal kingdom.

Per capita consumption of electricity is 630 Units in India in 2009.

NDRI Karnal cloned world's 2nd cloned buffalo ‘Garima’ It also produced world's 1st cloned buffalo calf in Feb 2009 but it could not survive. El Nino-is a shift in ocean temperatures and atmospheric conditions in the tropical pacific. It is a periodic warming of the Pacific oceans that leads to extremes of weather.

La Nino-It follows an El Nino. It is also called the Little Girl. It is anti El-Nino or simply a cold event. It is the cooling of water in the Pacific Ocean.

SOI (Southern Oscillation Index) is a major indicator of El Nino, measures the pressure difference between the Pacific islands of Tahiti and Darwin in Australia. A consistently negative SOI indicates to a developing El Nino. An El Nino is formally declared when above normal temp-0 − 5 degree celcius or higher are recorded over eastern Pacific surface for three straight months.

Definition of poverty as per Planning Commission-Average per capita spending below Rs. 356 per month in rural areas and Rs. 539 per month in urban areas.

38th World Environment Day was celebrated on 5th June 2009. Theme for 2009 chosen by UNDP is ‘Your Planet Needs You’ World Environment Day was established by UN General Assembly in 1972 to mark the opening of the Stockholm Conference on the human environment. 0.8 degree celcius rise in average temperature around the world since 1880. India is the 5th largest emitter of Greenhouse Gases. 2 of the 12 biodiversity hotspots of the world are in India i.e.. Northeastern region and Western Ghats.

US Space Agency's Themis Mission to study the colourful display of high latitude skies.

Phoenix Mars Lander found Perchlorate substance on Mars surface.