Competitive Exams: Current Affairs 2011: Geographical News

Geographical News

AERB Reviews Safety in Indian Nuclear Power Plants

In India, out of 20 reactors (19 are in operation), only tw-units namely Tarapur 1&2 are Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) similar to ones at Fukushima, Japan. All the reactors in India are designed to withstand the effects of earthquake and tsunami of specific magnitudes, which are decided, based on conservative criteria.

Census 2011 (provisional data) highlights

  • The population of the country is 1210.19 million of which 623.7 million (51.54%) are males and 586.46 million (48.46%) are females.

  • The population of India has increased by more than 181 million during the decade 2001 − 2011--almost as much as the population of Brazil, the fiftho most populous nation.

  • The absolute addition is slightly lower than the population of Brazil, the fifth most populous country in the world.

  • The country now accounts for 17.5% of the worlds population, equal to the combined headcount of the US, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh & Japan (1214.3 million).

  • Percentage growth in 2001 − 2011 is 17.64; males 17.19 and females 18.12.

  • 2001 − 2011 is the first decade (with the exception of 1911 − 1921) which has actually added lesser population compared to the previous decade.

  • The percentage decadal growth during 2001 − 2011 has registered the sharpest decline since Independence-a decrease of-3.90 percentage points from 21.54 to 17.64 percent

  • Uttar Pradesh (199.5 million) is the most populous State in the country (-population is more than the population of Brazil) followed by Maharashtra with 112 million (Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra (312 million), is greater than the population of USA).

  • The total number of children in the age-group 0 − 6 is 158.8 million (-5 million since 2001)

  • Population (0 − 6 years) 2001 − 2011 registered minus (-) 3.08 percent growth with minus (-) 2.42 for males and-3.80 for females.

  • The proportion of Child Population in the age group of 0 − 6 years to total population is 13.1 percent while the corresponding figure in 2001 was 15.9 percent. The decline has been to the extent of 2.8 points.

  • Overall sex rati-at the national level has increased by 7 points to reach 940 at Census 2011 as against 933 in Census 2001. This is the highest sex rati-recorded since Census 1971 and a shade lower than 1961. Increase in sex rati-is observed in 29 States/UTs.

  • Three major States (J&K, Bihar & Gujarat) have shown decline in sex rati-as compared to Census 2001.

  • Kerala with 1084 has the highest sex rati-followed by Puducherry with 1038, Daman & Diu has the lowest sex rati-of 618.

  • Literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04 per cent in 2011 showing an increase of 9.21 percentage points.

  • Percentage growth in literacy during 2001 − 2011 is 38.82; males: 31.98% & females: 49.10%.

  • Literates constitute 74 per cent of the total population aged seven and above and illiterates form 26 per cent.

  • Provisional Population is arrived at by adding the Population as reported by each Enumerator for the Enumeration Block assigned to her/him

  • There could be errors in addition or there could be cases of omission/duplication of Enumeration Blocks

New Categories for Census 2011

A number of changes have been incorporated in Cenus 2011 for the better capturing and analysis of data. The details of the changes incorporated are given hereunder:

  1. Gender: New category Other introduced in addition to Male and Female.

  2. Date of Birth question introduced along with Age.

  3. Current Marital Status: Separate codes Assigned for Separated and Divorced.

  4. New filter Question on SC/ST Introduced Is this person SC/ST?

  5. Disability: The question on disability canvassed at the Census 2001 has been modified. Household Schedule attempts to collect information on eight types of disabilities as against five included in the Household Schedule of Census of India 2001. The information is being collected on disabilities namely, disability In Seeing, In Hearing, In Speech, In Movement, Mental retardation, Mental Illness, Any Other and Multiple Disability.

  6. Literacy Status for Other sex added in addition to existing Male and Female.

  7. New Codes under Status of Attendance in Educational Institutions introduced for Not Attending viz.

    1. Attended before

    2. Never attended.

  8. Work: In the previous censuses, workers were categorized as Main workers and Marginal workers. Those who worked for more than 6 months during last year were categorized as Main workers whereas those who worked less than 6 months were categorized as Marginal Workers. At the Census 2011, for better capturing and analysis of Census data, Marginal workers have been classified int-tw-categories viz.

    1. worked for 3 months or more but less than 6 months

    2. worked for less than 3 months. The definition of Main worker remains the same.

  9. A separate code-5 has been included under Non-economic activity for rentiers.

  10. Migration Provision to specify the present name of the Village/Town of the Birth Place as well as the Place of Last Residence introduced.

  11. Name of the Institutional Household is also being recorded.

Study Regarding the Recent Changes Occurred in the Pattern of Weather

Under the Global and Regional Climate Change (GRCC) program of the Ministry of Earth Sciences during the XI plan, the Government has established a dedicated Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR) under the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune.

The primary focus and goal of the CCCR is to build a high resolution Earth System Model (ESM), which is a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-biosphere-cryosphere dynamical model, required to address issues on attribution and projection of regional climate change; and provide reliable inputs for various multi-sector impact assessments studies. CCCR addresses the critical issues of science of regional climate change with particular emphasis on the variability of the South Asian monsoon system in the global warming environment.

  • World Meteorological Day-23-March

  • Indian Institute of Tropical Meterology Pune

Indian Railway

Indian Railways has made the highest ever achievement in construction of new line and doubling projects in the financial year 2010 − 11. Railways has achieved the progress of construction of 709 kilometres of new lines in the year 2010 − 11, against the annual average progress of 180 kilometres new lines since independence. The highest achievement in construction of new lines in one year has been 357 kilometres in the year 2008 − 09.

Seismic Monitors to Study Earthquakes in Koyna Region/Deep Scientific Drilling to Study Reservoir Triggered

Earthquakes at Koyna India

  • Efforts are underway to build a new scientific initiative especially to understand the seismic activity of Koyna region in more detail by drilling deep-bore holes below the ground to place a network of seismic sensors. For this purpose, MoU has been signed on 7th January, 2011 with German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) on behalf of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) for an initial period of 5 years.

  • Koyna is considered a classical site of Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS). Earthquakes have been occurring since the impoundment of the reservoir in 1962, including the largest RTS event of M 6.3 on December 10, 1967. The RTS increased following the monsoon period and almost every year one or more earthquakes of magnitude above 4 have occurred. A deep borehole will provide direct observational data and contribute to earthquake hazard reduction.

  • Although the Koyna region was located in stable continental region, earthquakes were taking place in a localised area. It was like a mini-laboratory for studying earthquakes and the results of the proposed project would be applicable in general to earthquakes because the basic earthquake mechanism is the same.

  • NDMA Felicitates NDRF Team for Commendable Work in Search & Rescue Operations in Japan

  • The 46 member team of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) under the leadership of Contingent Commander Shri Alok Avasthy, Commandant to conduct search & rescue operations in the aftermath of recent Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan, returned from Japan after a successful operation. This was the first ever overseas operation of a NDRF Team since their operationalization in 2006.

Courtesy: The Hindu and Times of India