IAS Mains Agriculture Papers 1989

IAS Mains Agriculture 1989


Section A

  1. Write short critical notes in not more than 200 words each, on any three of the following:

    1. Cyclonic storms in India

    2. Major cropping patterns in India

    3. Agro-forestry

    4. Integrated weed management.

  2. What are the constraints for increasing productivity of groundnut? Detail the steps recommended for overcoming these constraints and improving productivity.

  3. What is fertilizer use efficiency? Explain the methods by which N use efficiency could be increased for the following crops under conditions indicated against each:

    1. Rice grown under wetland Condition

    2. Cotton grown under garden land Condition

    3. Groundnut grown under dry land conditions.

  4. Dry land farming is said to be a gamble with monsoon. Discuss briefly and suggest measures to reduce the risk and stabilize agricultural production in dry land farming.

Section B

  1. Write short critical notes in not more than 200 words each on any three of the following:

    1. Biofertilizers

    2. Classification of soil and water conservation measure

    3. Basic decisions of farming business

    4. Marketing functions and functionaries.

  2. What are the strategies for meeting irrigation water shortage and using the available irrigation water efficiently?

  3. On the basis of constraint analysis, what are the measures suggested to maximise yield of rice in Eastern India?

  4. What are the principles of extension education? What are the gaps in extension service in India?


Section A

  1. Answer the following questions

    1. What is Biotechnology? Explain its potential application for agriculture and horticulture.

    2. Can you determine the exact base sequence of a gene if you know the amino-acid sequence of its protein product? Explain.

    3. What is hybrid vigour? Describe the procedure usually followed for the production of hybrid seed of bajra (Pearl Millet) in large quantities.

    4. Write short notes on the following:

      1. Multiline variety

      2. Isolation Distance

      3. One-gene one-enzyme hypothesis

  2. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. The introduction of high yielding and hybrid varieties of crops has brought about a revolution in Indian agriculture. Comment on this. What measures would you suggest to sustain the green revolution in the country?

    2. What is an idiotype? Describe the morphological-physiological traits of an idiotype of wheat. How far has the concept of new plant types helped-in increasing the production of wheat crop?

    3. State the importance and techniques of processing and storage of seeds of improved varieties of crops. What are the various control measures to minimise the storage losses in seeds? Define the different categories of seed recognized by the Seed Certification Agency.

    4. How is it planned to meet the growing demand for quality seed in the country? Indicate the specific roles of the organizations at the state level and at the national level involved in seed production work.

  3. Differentiate clearly between the following:

    1. Photosynthesis and TRUE respiration

    2. Guttation and Exudation

    3. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b

    4. Photoperiodism and Thermoperiodism

    5. Absorption and Adsorption

  4. Answer the following questions

    1. How do you measure photosynthesis. Give an account on the recent views on mechanism of photosynthesis.

    2. Define a growth regulator. Discuss the physiological effect of auxins in plants:

    3. Development of ‘Sink’ is more important than ‘Source’ Discuss using examples from cereals, pulses and oilseeds.

    4. Give possible reasons for the following:

      1. Why do starchy seeds decrease proportionately more in dry weight during germination than oily seeds?

      2. Why should bananas not be kept in a refrigerator?

      3. Two crop species show equal rates of photosynthesis in laboratory tests, but one has much greater production potential than the other.

Section B

  1. Answer the following questions

    1. Discuss biological control of pests illustrating your answer with some of the classical examples from India and abroad.

    2. Name the important insect pests of paddy which are found in India. Describe the life history, damage and control of any one of them.

    3. Write short notes on the following:

      1. Aflatoxin

      2. Radiation in insect control

      3. Plant products for controlling storage pests

      4. Third generation pesticides

  2. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Breeding resistant varieties of crops is the only permanent solution to ever increasing disease problems Discuss this statement from all possible angles.

    2. How would you distinguish between virus and physiological diseases? Write a short account of mosaic disease of tobacco. Give its control measures also.

    3. Answers the questions below

      1. Name any disease that is caused by Phytophthora and suggest at least two methods of controlling it.

      2. Enumerate the characteristics of bacteria, virus and Mycoplasma.

    4. Give the causal organism and describe the symptoms, mode of spread and control of the following:

      1. Powdery mildew of crucifers.

      2. Wilt of arhar (Cajanus cajan).

      3. Grain smut of jowar (Sorghum).

      4. Black rust of wheat.

  3. Answer the following questions

    1. How are the problems of growing vegetables different from problems of growing cereals and pulses? Discuss the role of Soybean and Vegetables in human nutrition.

    2. Examine the effect of climatic variables on the production of fruit and vegetable crops. What are the problems in marketing of fruits and vegetables? Suggest remedies.

    3. Give the varieties recommended, methods of propagation, package of practices. And yield per hectare for the following:

      1. Banana

      2. Guava

      3. Mango

    4. Discuss the scientific basis of pruning. Give specific examples to show how physiological considerations determine the technique of pruning in the case of apple or any other fruit crop.

  4. Answer the following questions

    1. Indian agriculture experienced an acceleration in growth rates due to investments in modernisation, in cash crops and subsidiary agricultural activities. Analyse citing evidences.

    2. Write explanatory notes on the following:

      1. Jawahar Rozgar Yojna.

      2. Role of NABARD in agricultural finace.

      3. Panchayati Raj: Problems and Prospects.

    3. The food grains production target for the period 1988 − 90, has been raised to 185 mllion tonnes in the latest official appraisal. What has prompted this upward revision and how the higer production levels are being attempted to be achieved?

    4. Examine the problem of population in relation to food supply in India. Review the measures adopted by the Government of India in recent years for increasing food production.