IAS Mains Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Papers 1994

IAS Mains Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science 1994


Section A

  1. Write short notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Inter-relationship of calcium, phosphorus and Vitamin D

    2. Factorial method of estimating energy requirement

    3. Tris buffer diluent

    4. Milk ‘let-down’ and ‘holding-up’

  2. Answer the following questions

    1. Describe in brief the digestive system of cattle and compare it with that of pig, bringing out the basic differences in the two species.

    2. What do you understand by rumination? Describe its process. Write a note on the contribution of rumen to the nutrition of the ruminant.

  3. What measures are in vogue for evaluating energy value of feeds? Briefly define each. Discuss the usefulness of Total Digestible Nutrients and Net Energy as measures of feed energy for cattle under Indian conditions.

  4. ‘An animal's productivity is affected both directly and indirectly, by environmental factors.’ Discuss the statement with reference to either milk production in cattle or wool growth in sheep. Briefly describe the methods of controlling climatic stress in one of the above species.

Section B

  1. Write short notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Essential features of practical and economical feeding of dairy cows

    2. Distinguish between ‘safe’ and ‘clean’ milk

    3. Management of pregnant dry does

    4. Preparation and nutritive value of cultured milks

  2. In adult ruminants VFA (volatile fatty acids) contributes approximately 70% of the total energy input. Discuss in detail the mechanisms through which Acetic, Propionic and Butyric acids are metabolised in ruminant body and the number of net ATP gained from each acid during metabolism.

  3. Write a brief note on the animal feed resources of the country Parts of the country are prone to drought. What strategy would you adopt for feeding of livestock under severe drought conditions so as to maintain the health of livestock?

  4. Briefly describe the common systems of housing poultry. Discuss the basic requirements, merits and demerits of Deep Litter system of housing in a tropical country like India.


Section A

  1. Write short notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Heterosis

    2. Blood protozoan diseases

    3. Lethal factors and genetic abnormalities

    4. Freezing microtomy

  2. Variation in animal population plays an important role in animal improvement. Describe sources of variation and its implications in breeding programme.

  3. Rapid upgradation of livestock in the country is a priority. Detail a plan keeping in view the local, regional and socio-economic requirements to achieve this aim incorporating the new technology available.

  4. Ranikhet disease is reported from many places even after immunizations. Enumerate various factors which may be responsible and suggest measures for its control.


  1. Write short notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Sanitary analysis of water

    2. Blood smear as an aid to diagnosis

    3. Humoral antibody

    4. Ripening of cheese

  2. Tuberculosis is an important zoonotic disease. Outline a programe for eradicating this disease from livestock population of the country. List measures to be taken to check the spread of infection to human beings.

  3. Define and deduce Hardy Weinberg Law by mating frequency. Discuss the influence of selection on genetic prop-arties of population. In a herd, frequency of recessive gene is 0.2. Calculate the new frequency after complete selection of recessive homozygous genotypes for 5 generations.

  4. Discuss various methods of preservation, including the newer technology of meat and poultry products.