IAS Mains Anthropology Papers 1998

IAS Mains Anthropology 1998

Anthropology-1998 (Main) (Paper-I)

Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300

Candidates should attempt questions from Section I and EITHER from Section II a OR Section II b according to instructions given under each Section. Answer six questions in all.

All questions carry equal marks.

Section I

Note: Answer any three questions including question 1, which is compulsory.

  1. Write notes on any two of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Caste mobility

    2. Witchcraft and sorcery

    3. Pithecanthropus erectus

  2. Neolithic is a ‘self-sufficient food producing economy.’ Critically examine this expression.

  3. Do you agree with the view that family is a ‘universal association’ Critically examine the above statement.

  4. Now we live more in a class than a caste. Discuss the role of kinship in this changed situation.

  5. ‘Primitive society is governed by the traditional customary law.’ Do you agree with this statement? Explain.

Section II (a)

Note: Answer any three questions including question 6, which is compulsory.

  1. Writes notes on any two of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Genetic counselling

    2. Mutation

    3. Growth curves

  2. What is ‘race’ Enumerate and discuss the factors responsible for the formation of races.

  3. Define Hardy-Weinberg law and state briefly how Hardy-Weinberg law is applicable in population human genetics?

  4. Define twins. Describe the method of diagnosis of twins. In what ways are twins useful in the study of human genetics?

  5. ‘Man can stand erect while anthropoid apes cannot.’ Discuss the anatomical changes that occurred in Man due to erect posture.

Section II (b)

Note: Answer any three questions including question 11 which is compulsory.

  1. Write notes on any two of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Holistic and atomistic approach

    2. Superorganic view of culture

    3. Pattern of culture

  2. Trade the genesis and development of field word in anthropological research. Assess its importance in the development of Anthropology.

  3. Define ‘culture area’ How did it help the American diffusionists to understand diffusion of culture?

  4. What do you mean by cultural ecology? Evaluate how Julian Steward's particularistic approach is helpful in understanding multilineal evolution.

  5. “T o Radcliffe-Brown ‘function’ was the contribution an institution makes to the maintenance of social structure.” Elucidate in the light of Radcliffe-Brown's contributions to structural-functionalism theory.

Anthropology-1998 (Main) (Paper-II)

Candidates should attempt Questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any three of the remaining questions selecting at least one question from each Section.

All questions carry equal marks.

Section A

  1. Write notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Folk-Urban Continuum

    2. Jajmani System

    3. Sohinian Tradition

    4. Social Forestry

  2. Describe the socio-cultural characteristics of the Neolithic period in India with suitable examples.

  3. Discuss the basis of Indian Social System. Do you find any change today?

  4. Account for the emergence of new religions in India in the 6th century B. C.

Section B

  1. Write notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Action Anthropology

    2. I. T. D A

    3. Ethnographic profile of a matrilineal tribe in India

    4. V. Elwin and his contributions

  2. ‘Village studies are crucial in the understanding of Indian life and culture.’ Who were the pioneer anthropologists to undertake such studies? Give a comprehensive picture of any one of them.

  3. Discuss the impact of modernization on the tribal and rural peoples in India.

  4. Discuss the health and nutritional status of tribal and rural children in India. How far has the government policy been effective?