IAS Mains General Studies 1981 Paper I

Time Allowed: Three HoursMaximum Marks: 300InstructionsAnswer must be written in the medium specified in the Admission Certificate issued to you, which must be stated clearly on the cover of the answer-book in the space provided for the purpose. No Marks will be given for the answers written in a medium other than that specified in the Admission Certificate. Candidates should attempt all questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each question. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.

Section I

  1. The Caste system and the practice of untouchability were major targets of attack from the social reform movement, which grew in strength after the revolt of 1857. Indicate the main factors which gradually undermined the caste system and brought into sharp focus the evils of untouchability. What was the role of Mahatma Gandhi in the eradication of untouchability and to what extent did he influence the xxx of the constitution and Government policy in this regard? What further steps should be taken to wipe out untouchability (Not more than 200 words)? 25

  2. One of the outstanding achievements of the Government of independent India is the integration of the former ‘Princely’ States with the Indian Union. How was this achieved? What important forces/factors helped the Unification of India (Not more than 150 words)? 25

  3. When was the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation between the Republic of India and the Union of xxx Republic signed? What are the important xxx of the treaty and what is its duration? How has the Treaty served India's interests? Does it affect India's position as a prominent members of the Non-aligned Group of Nations (Not more than 150 words)? 25

  4. Answer the questions

    1. In which State/States of India are the following festivals celebrated by a large number of people? 5

      1. Baisakhi

      2. Ratha Yatra

      3. Bihu

      4. Pongal

      5. Onam

    2. For what special qualities is an individual honoured by Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding. Who administers the Award? Who were the first and last awardees (Not more than 75 words)? 8

    3. In which regions of India did the following dances originate? 5

      1. Bhangra

      2. xxx

      3. Mohini Attam

      4. Kathak

      5. Bamboo dance

    4. Indicate the xxx in which majority of people belonging to the following tribes beside: 5

      1. xxx

      2. Bhils

      3. Gonds

      4. Khasis

      5. Santhals

    5. Name a raga in Hindustani or Karnatik music which is xxx appropriate in the early hours of morning?

  5. ‘xxx of law and order has become increasingly xxx in many parts of India. What are the main reasons for the deterioration in law and order position? How are the State Governments trying to control crimes’ What further steps would you suggest with a view to xxx a greater sense of security in the minds of the people specially those, who belong to the xxx sections of the society and live in remote areas (Not more than 150 words). 25

Section II

  1. The Press in India is free to publish any news and views except there, which are objectionable from the point of view of the security of state, friendly relatins with foreign States, etc. What steps have been taken recently by Government to prevent monopoly of the xxx of the newspaper, to encourage the xxx of small newspapers and to prevent the exploitation of working journalists and other employees of Indian newspapers (Not more than 150 words)? 25

  2. What important issues were considered at the Conference held in August 1981 at Nairobi on new and renewable sources of energy under the xxx of United Nations? What progress has been made in India towards the development of renewable sources of energy (Not more than 200 words)? 30

  3. Answer the following

    1. What are the general issues on which the organisation named Solidarity, started agitation in Poland under the leadership of xxx? Why are the countries both in Eastern and Western blocs in Europe deeply concerned about the above developments in Poland (Not more than 150 words)? 20

    2. Who are the following and why were they in the news recently (Not more than two sentences on each)? 10

      1. Kaka Saheb Kalelkar

      2. Palghat Mani Iyer

      3. Alder Winship Clausen

      4. Bhupesh Gupta

      5. Reinhold Messner

  4. Answer the following

    1. Where and when will the next Asian Games (ASIAD) be held? What is its mascot? What name has been givne to the mascot? Who is the head of Committee which is organising the Games? Where were the First Asian Games held (Not more than five sentences)?

    2. With what branch of sports were/are the following associated?

      1. Jesse Owens

      2. K S Ranjitsinghji

      3. Sebastian Coe

      4. Pele

      5. Nandu Natekar

      6. W G xxx

      7. K D Singh (Babu)

      8. Michael xxx

      9. xxx Louis

      10. Billoo Sethi

    3. In many non-communist countries in Europe and America professionalism has become xxx features of important branches of sports. Do you xxx that the introduction or official recognition of professionalism will attract more boys and girls to sports and will lead to an improvement in the national starndard of sports in India? Given reasons for your answer (Not more than 125 words). 15

  5. Answer the following

    1. Write short notes on any two of the following: (Not more than 50 words) 20

      1. “New Moore” Island

      2. ‘Vayudoot’

      3. Namibia

    2. Where are the following places located and why did they come prominently in xxx recent times? Answer any two (Not more than 50 words on each). 10

      1. Bhagalpur

      2. xxx

      3. xxx

      4. Meenakshipuram

  6. What is territorial Army? For what reasons has it been constituted? Who are eligible to join it? What incentives are given to the members of the Territorial Army (Not more than 100 words)? 15 Name the main combat aircraft which are in active service in Indian Air Force. Which of them is obsolete or obsolescent? What have been the recent acquisitions of combat aircraft for use in our Air Force? What options are open to Indian Air Force to match the F − 16 Aircraft, which is being acquired by xxx (Not more than 100 words)? 15

  7. The phenomenon of rising prices has been largely responsible for xxx Inian economy and planning cut of xxx; it is also xxx hardship to the people. What are the basic xxx continuous inflation in India and what has been the government strategy to control it? What specific measure have xxx been taken by the Government of India for controlling xxx (Not more than 200 words)? 30

  8. xxx been estimated that over Rs. 2, 000 crores of public in sick industrial units and the number of xxx private sector is about 22, 000. What steps have Government taken in the matter (Not more than 150 words on each)? 20 Write short notes on the following: (Not more than 150 words on each) 10

    1. Thal-xxx Project

    2. Operation flood

Section III

The table below gives statistics relating to the number of locomotives of different types such as steam, diesel and electric as well as the number of coaching carriages and the number of wagons, which were operated on the Indian Railway during 1950 − 51, 190 − 61, 1965 − 66, 1970 − 71, and each year from 1972 − 78.

Year

Steam

Diesel

Electric

Total Number of Locomotives

No of Coaching Carriages

No. Of Wagons

1950 − 51

8, 120

17

72

8, 209

18, 628

xxx

1960 − 61

10, 312

181

131

10, 624

23, 439

xxx

1965 − 66

10, 613

727

403

11, 743

xxx

xxx

1970 − 71

9, 387

1, 169

602

11, 158

xxx

3, 83, 990

1972 − 73

8, 963

1, 431

668

11, 082

xxx

3, 84, 283

1973 − 74

8, 847

1, 610

669

xxx

36, 422

3, 88366

1974 − 75

8, 682

1, 702

729

xxx

36, 566

3, 50, 968

1975 − 76

8, 496

1, 803

796

11, 695

36, 818

3, 95, 250

1976 − 77

8, 263

1, 902

xxx

11, 010

39, 794

3, 97, 773

1977 − 78

8, 215

2, 025

901

11, 140

37, 226

3, 99, 971

  1. What conclusions can be drawn from the table in regard to the various types of traction utilisation of coaches and wagons? Keeping the above statistics in view, what measures are called for to gear up the railway services to meet the growing needs of Indian economy? 15

  2. Given below are the production figures in India of certain electrical goods during the period 1950 − 79. Information regarding the generation of electricity is also gven to the same periods. What broad conclusions can be drawn from them? 10

    S. No

    Name of Industry

    50 − 51

    60 − 61

    65 − 66

    70 − 71

    75 − 76

    76 − 77

    77 − 78

    78 − 79

    1

    xxx (in thousand HP)

    xxx

    xxx

    1, 753

    2, 721

    3, 610

    3, 670

    3, 960

    3, 980

    2

    Electric Fans (in lakh nos)

    xxx

    10.60

    13.60

    17.20

    21.40

    25.30

    24.00

    31.00

    3

    Incandescent Electric Lamp (in lakh nos)

    140

    433

    721

    1, 193

    1, 231

    1, 619

    1, 685

    1, 828

    4

    Electricity generated (in crore kw)

    530

    1, 690

    3, 300

    5, 580

    7, 985

    8, 920

    9, 220

    10, 322

  3. The expectation of Indians at various ages for the year 1941 − 50, 1951 − 60 and 1961 − 70 are given below separately for males and females. 10 Expectation of Life at Various Stages

    Age of Person

    1941 − 50 Male

    1941 − 50 Female

    1951 − 60 Male

    1951 − 60 Female

    1961 − 70 Male

    1961 − 70 Female

    10

    32.5

    31.7

    41.9

    40.6

    40.4

    44.7

    10

    40.0

    39.5

    45.2

    43.8

    48.8

    47.7

    20

    33.6

    32.9

    37.0

    35.8

    41.1

    39.9

    30

    26.6

    26.2

    29.0

    27.9

    33.3

    xxx

    40

    20.5

    21.1

    22.1

    22.4

    25.9

    26.4

    50

    14.9

    16.2

    16.5

    17.5

    19.2

    17.7

    60

    10.1

    11.3

    11.8

    13.0

    xxx

    13.9

    Examine the above table and indicate the xxx of the increase in life expectancy of Indians at various stages? What conclusions can you draw on comparative longevity of males and females? 10

  4. Monthly average value of exports and imports during 1972 − 80 are as below: 10 (in crores of Rupees)

    Year

    Exports

    Imports

    1972

    164

    156

    1974

    277

    376

    1976

    429

    423

    1978

    477

    568

    1979

    538

    742

    1980

    548

    982

    Represent the above data graphically and indicate how the balances of trade has varied. What can be the main cause for the sudden increase of imports since 1978?