IAS Mains General Studies Papers 1991

IAS Mains General Studies 1991

Paper I

Section I

  1. Narrate the last phase of the India's freedom movement especially from the beginning of 1947 till the attainment of Independence (35). OR Discuss the growth of revolutionary terrorism with special reference to its ramifications in Maharashtra, Bengal and Punjab till the first decade of the twentieth century (About 250 words).

  2. Answer any two of the following (15 × 2 = 30)

    1. What was Harijan Movement? Why and with what effect did Gandhi launch individual Satyagraha?

    2. ‘I am convinced that the only key to the solution of the world's problems and of India's problems lies in socialism. I see no way of ending the poverty, the vast unemployment, the degradation and the subjection of the Indian people except through socialism.’ In what way did Nehru succeed in achieving the objectives through national planning?

    3. Trace the growth and development of University education till 1919 (About 150 words each).

  3. Answer any three of the following: (About 50 words each) (10 × 3 = 30)

    1. ‘Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar's versatile career went through various phases.’ State briefly the various facets of his life.

    2. How far was Rabindranath Tagore a poet of Mankind?

    3. Discuss the role of the Theosophical Society in the history of religious movement in India.

    4. State the various regulations imposed by the British Government to curtail the freedom of the press.

  4. Answer any three of the following: (About 20 words on each) (10 × 3 = 30)

    1. Write about the chief characteristics of the following:

      1. Chandella school of architecture

      2. Manipur dance

      3. Baisakhi

      4. Janmashtami

    2. What do you know about the following movements?

      1. Swadeshi Movement

      2. Khilafat Movement

      3. Namdhari Movement

    3. Where are the following located and why have they been in the news?

      1. Rudrapur

      2. Kachchativu

      3. Moron

    4. Why have the following become famous?

      1. S A Dange

      2. C. Sankaran Nair

      3. Titu Mir

      4. Theodore Beck

      5. Edwin Lutyens

Section II

  1. Who were the main participants at the West Asian Peace Conference in Madrid and what were the main issues confronting the participants? What do you think has been achieved at the meet (35)? OR Briefly describe the chain of major events towards the end of 1991 which led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the resignation of Mikhail Gorbachov. Who assumed the Soviet Unions membership in the United Nations including that in the Security Council (About 250 words).

  2. Attempt any three of the following: (About 75 words each) (10 × 3 = 30)

    1. What is ‘Operation Rhino’ Why was it resorted to and to what extent you think it has been a success?

    2. What do you know of the new Secretary-General of the United Nations? Mention some of the more challenging tasks he has to face in his new assignment.

    3. In what way India made a significant contribution at the CHOGM summit at Harare? Who will host the next CHOGM and when?

    4. What is the genesis of the Yugoslav unrest? What has been the reaction of the European

    Community towards it?

  3. Attempt any five of the following: (About 150 words on each)

    1. What is National Integration Council? Is there a need for it? What was the major outcome of the recent meeting of the National Integration Council?

    2. What was the magnitude of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and what were the salient features of the Supreme Court verdict on the Bhopal as Tragedy?

    3. What has been India's stand in respect of the proposed sale of a nuclear reactor to Iran?

    4. Briefly indicate why and what types of problems were faced by the United Germany consequent on its unification.

    5. Where is Antarctica and what is there so special about It? What do you know of any ban on exploration in Antarctica?

    6. What main topics were discussed at the NATO Summit at Rome recently and indicate the main trends which emerged out of it?

    7. Who are the ‘Boat People’ of Hong Kong? What is the nature and magnitude of their problem?

  4. Answer the following questions

    1. With which games are the following associated: (About two sentences on each) (2 × 15 = 30)

      1. Begum Hazrat Mahal Trophy

      2. Swaythling Cup

      3. Vijay Hazare Trophy

    2. Why have the following been in the news of late?

      1. Ben Okri

      2. Nasiruddin Dagar

      3. Carla Hills

      4. Shankar Guha Neogy

      5. Father Jean Bertrand Aristide

      6. Katrine Krabbe

      7. Dr. N S Swaminathan

      8. Durga Khota

    3. Answers the questions below

      1. Who is the director of the Doordarshan Serial: Chanakya? Who plays the title role?

      2. Who won the Wimbledon Championship in 1991? Who was his opponent and of which nationality?

      3. Who has been adjudged the best film Director at the 38th National Film Festival for 1990 and for which film?

      4. Where was the Olympic Hockey qualifying tournament played? Who won it?

Section II

  1. Answer the following questions

    1. A medical report mentioned that 85 per cent of the residents of a village have been vaccinated against a disease and that 70 per cent escaped the disease. Neverthless, the percentage of those who were vaccinated but who suffered from the disease was 5. Show that this report cannot be correct (6).

    2. The income and expenditure of a bank for the year 1985 − 86 is given below. Represent the data by a pie diagram

    Total Income (in lakhs): Rs. 5, 086, Expenditure (in lakhs) Interest paid: Rs. 3, 179, Salaries: Rs. 1, 429, Rent: Rs. 152, Other: Rs. 257, Profit: Rs. 69

  2. Answer the following questions

    1. The following table gives the number of runs stored by two batsmen A and B in the last five matches:

      Batsman A

      Score = 40

      Score = 50

      Score = 60

      Score = 40

      Score = 50

      Batsman B

      Score = 100

      Score = 120

      Score = 5

      Score = 5

      Score = 10

      Which batsman would you prefer for inclusion in the team for the next match? Why (6)?

    2. The following table gives the classification of 100 electric bulbs of two types A and B according to their life-time in hours.

      Life time in Hours

      Range = 900 − 1000

      Range = 1000 − 1100

      Range = 1100 − 1200

      Range = 1200 − 1300

      Range = 1300 − 1400

      Range = 1400 − 1500

      Number of Bulbs Type A

      Life in hours = 3

      Life in hours = 5

      Life in hours = 22

      Life in hours = 40

      Life in hours = 20

      Life in hours = 10

      Number of Bulbs Types B

      Life in hours = 5

      Life in hours = 10

      Life in hours = 25

      Life in hours = 30

      Life in hours = 15

      Life in hours = 15

    Both the types come with a guarantee period of 1100 hours, during which all failed bulbs are replaced free of cost. Which type of bulbs would you prefer? Why?

    If the manufacture of type A bulbs wants to ensure that the proportion of bulbs that fail during the guarantee period should not exceed 0.05, what guarantee period should be offer (6)?

  3. Answer the following questions

    1. Examine the following statements critically: (6)

      1. In Delhi, 80% of road accidents involve male drivers, while only 20% involve female drivers. Therefore, females are better drivers.

      2. A good idea about the average monthly income of individuals in a city in India can be obtained by calculating the average of the monthly incomes of a random sample of 100 persons selected from the telephone directory.

      3. One can predict the winning candidate in an election by taking every tenth voter coming out of an election booth to name the candidate for whom he has voted.

    2. 100 fish from a lake were trapped, marked and released in the lake. After allowing enough time to ensure that the marked fish have mixed freely with the unmarked ones, 20 fish were caught and bound to contain 5 marked and 15 unmarked fish. Using this information, give an estimation total number of fish in the lake (8).

  4. Answer the following questions

    1. The following data is concerned with the annual turnover in lakhs of rupees of a manufacturing company: Year 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Turnover 342 380 385 420 480 Obtain the average annual rate of increase in turnover and forecast the turnover for 1991 (6).

    2. Let X denote the output of an employee before a training programme and Y that after the training programme. Statistical analysis indicates that X and Y are related by the equation Y = 20 + 0.95 X

    Where X ranges from 40 to 100. The management claims that since 0.95 is less than one, the training programme reduces the output of the employee. Do you agree with the management?

    Justify your answer (6).


    A region has varying degrees of cloudiness in the month of July. The degree of cloudiness is rated on an 11 point scale from 0 to 10; 0 denoting clear skies and 10 denoting completely overcast skies. The histogram below gives the classification of 1400 observations on degrees of cloudiness.

    Prepare a table showing the frequency distribution of degrees of cloudiness. Comment briefly on the nature of cloudiness in the region (6).

Paper II

Section I

  1. Answer the following questions

    1. Examine the constitutional relation between the President and the Prime Minister of India (About 250 words). (40) OR

    2. Examine whether the grant of greater autonomy to the States would be in the interest of strengthening the integrity and promoting the economic development of the country, especially in the light of recent happenings in our Country (About 250 words). (40)

  2. Answer the following questions

    1. What usually is meant by the expression an underdeveloped economy? What, according to you, are the basic causes of underdevelopment in India (About 250 words)? (40) OR

    2. Discuss the measures taken in the Five-Year Plans to mitigate rural poverty (About 250 words). (40)

  3. Answer the following questions

    1. What is artificial intelligence? What is its current scenario and what are its prospects (About 250 words)? (40) OR

    2. Give a brief account of major achievements in the realm of biotechnology in India (About 250 words).

Section II

  1. Answer any two of the following (Answer to each questions should be in about 150 words) (20 + 20)

    1. Discuss the powers of the President of India regarding the scheduled areas.

    2. What are the constitutional provisions that ensure the independence of the Public Service Commissions in India?

    3. Discuss the secular nature of Indian polity and the position of minorities in India.

    4. ‘The planning operation's in India have led to erosion of federalism.’ Discuss.

  2. Answer any two of the following (Answer to each questions should be in about 150 words) (20 + 20)

    1. Analyze the main defects of Indian Trade Union Movement.

    2. Bring out the main features of India's Trade Policy.

    3. What, according to you, are the remedies to the problem of rural indebtedness in India?

    4. What are the factors that ensure the success of the Public Distribution System?

  3. Answer any two of the following (Answer to each questions should be in about 150 words) (15 + 15)

    1. What do you understand by the Integrated Rural Energy System? Also mention at least three new sources of Energy.

    2. Examine the recent developments that have taken place in identifying and mapping land resources in India.

    3. Explain the factors affecting the distribution of population in India, bringing out the variation in density over space.

    4. Account for the varied environmental problems resulting from wide spread deforestation in both Aravallis and Himalayan regions.

  4. Answer any two of the following (Answer to each questions should be in about 150 words) (20 + 20)

    1. Trace the progress of India's Space Research Programmes? What are its significant achievements?

    2. What is ‘Jal Shakti’ What are its uses?

    3. What is the basis of monsoon forecasts now prepared by the Indian Meteorological Department, which have been reasonably correct for the last three successive years?

    4. The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) is expected to set up a number of hydroelectric projects in the Eighth plan. Summarise the salient features of the proposal.

Section III

  1. Answer four questions from Group A, three from Group B and three from Group C (Answer to each question should be in about 25 words each) (30)

    1. Group A

      1. What is Non-Plan Expenditure?

      2. What is Statutory Liquidity Requirement of commercial banks?

      3. What is ICICI?

      4. What is ‘Dakshina Ganga’ Why is it so named?

      5. How was Meghataya Plateau separated from the Deccan Plateau?

      6. In the context of recent institutional developments in our capital markets, what do the following abbreviations stand for:

        1. CRISIL

        2. SEBI

        3. SHCI

    2. Group B

      1. Distinguish between value-based politics and personality-based politics.

      2. Distinguish between Care-taker Government and Minority Government.

      3. When can the Governor of a State reserve a Bill for consideration by the President of India?

      4. Why was Education taken out of the State List and inserted in the concurrent list of the Indian Constitution?

      5. Set forth the functions of the Cabinet.

      6. What is the value of ‘O arid M’ in Administration?

    3. Group C

      1. What are binary chemical weapons?

      2. What is SQUID? Which of the CSIR laboratories are working on it?

      3. What is tissue culture?

      4. What is Hepatitis E?

      5. What are ocean floor polymetallic sulphides? Where is the largest occurrence of deposits reported?

      6. Name the main offshore oil field of India and the agency which operates it.