IAS Mains General Studies Papers 1995

IAS Mains General Studies 1995

Paper I

Section I

  1. Do you think that the Partition of India was inevitable? Discuss the attitudes of Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Nehru and Maulana Azad towards the crucial question of Partition (35). OR In what way did the Civil Disobedience Movement affect the different provinces of India? How did it foster peasant movement in India (About 250 words)?

  2. Answer any two of the following (About 150 words each) (15 × 2 = 30)

    1. When was the system of open competitive examination in the Indian Civil Service introduced? Analyse the growth of the Indian Civil Service till the passing of the Government of India Act, 1919.

    2. Discuss the various aspects of social legislation introduced by the East India Company in the first half of the nineteenth century.

    3. Trace the emergence of Indian nationalism till the foundation of the Indian National


  3. Answer any three of the following (About 75 words each): (10 × 3 = 30)

    1. How did the British illustrate Lord Canning's policy in treating the Indian Princes as ‘Breakwaters in the storm’

    2. Assess the growth and development of Technical Education during the British rule.

    3. ‘Swami Vivekanande might well be called the father of Indian nationalism.’ Elucidate.

    4. How far was Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore's concept of religion wedded to his love of nature?

  4. Answer the following questions

    1. Write about the chief feature of the following:

      1. Shab-i-Barat

      2. Ganesh Chaturthi

      3. Dravidian architecture

    2. What do you know about the following?

      1. Aligarh Movement

      2. Shuddhi Movement

      3. Brahmo Movement

    3. Where are the following located and why have they been in the news recently

      1. Thiruvanthapuram

      2. Charar-e-Sharif

      3. Bara Hoti

    4. Why have the following become famous (About 20 words each)?

      1. Bhai Parmanand

      2. Dr. Satyapal

      3. Vasudeo Balwant Phadke

      4. George Yule

      5. N C Kelkar

      6. C F Andrews (2 × 15 = 30)

Section II

  1. What strategic moves have recently been made by the USA and China in the South Pacific region? Is the USA withdrawing from this region? 35 OR Recent SAARC Summit has been considered as a ‘non-starter’ by some political observers while for others it has marked a watershed. Explain the two view points (About 250 words).

  2. Attempt any three of the following: (10 × 3 = 30)

    1. Where was the G − 7 summit held recently? In what respects are its recommendations concerning India considered an exercise in hypocrisy?

    2. In what respects can the recent bilateral deal between the USA and Japan be considered as mockery of the GATT treaty?

    3. What have been the recent recommendations of the World Bank on India's Family Welfare programme? How do these recommendations compare with those which emerged from the Cairo Conference on Population and Development in 1994?

    4. For what reasons have the parliamentarians recently stressed the importance of setting up a

    National Security Council in India (About 100 words each)?

  3. Attempt any five of the following (About 50 words each): (6 × 5 = 30)

    1. What have been the observations of the Supreme Court in a recent judgement in respect of a Uniform Civil Code?

    2. What are the reasons for the intensification of the border dispute between Peru and Ecuador?

    3. Which organisation prepared the report entitled ‘Our Global Neighbourhood’ What are its major recommendations?

    4. Why has ‘Baring’ been in the news? Who has been held responsible for its present situation?

    5. What is the significance of the agreements signed between India and South Africa during the first official visit of President Nelson Mandela to India recently?

    6. In what respects is the Prime Minister Narasimha Rao's recent visit to France considered to be ‘most productive and useful’

    7. What has been the clinching evidence about the receipt of M − 11 missiles by Pakistan?

  4. Answer the following questions

    1. Who are the following? Why have they been in the news recently?

      1. Harold Wilson

      2. Irfan Ljubijankic

      3. Vaclav Havel

      4. Ashapurna Devi

      5. Sheikh Khalifa Bin Hamad Al Thani

      6. Chatrel Rinpoche

      7. Ram Vithal Nagarkar

      8. Carlos Menem

      9. Alison Hargreaves

      10. Rosalyn Higgin

    2. Answer the questions

      1. Who was given the Best Director Award in the 42nd Film Awards recently and for which film?

      2. Which film won the Golden Palm at the Cannes Film Festival recently and who was its director?

      3. Who was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding as announced in May 1995?

      4. Which sports persons associated with Cricket and Hockey were selected in 1994 for Arjuna Awards?

      5. Who won the French Open Men's Tennis Title recently? Who was the runner-up (About 20 words each)? (2 × 15 = 30)

Section III

  1. ‘The total number of books in a library was 7500 in 1990. It increased by 8% in 1991 and further increased by 6% in 1992. The number of books in the English section was 4000 in 1990 and it increased by 10% in 1991 as compared to. 1990. The number of books in the Hindi section increased by 5% in 1992 as compared to 1991. In the English section, there were 1200, 1400 and 1550 text books during the years 1990, 1991 and 1992, respectively, while in the Hindi section, the number of general books (non-text books) were 2900, 3050 and 3125 respectively, during the three years.’ Represent the above information in a tabular form. Also calculate the percentage increase in the number of books in the library in 1992 as compared to 1990.12

  2. Answer the following questions

    1. The following table shows the investment on different heads under a five-year plan. Represent the data by a pie-diagram. The figures for relative percentages and corresponding angles must be shown in a tabular form. 8



      Major irrigation




      Social Services

      Investment (Rs. Crores)

      Investment 2280

      Investment 648

      Investment 1968

      Investment 2940

      Investment 1656

      Investment 2508

    2. In a locality actually invaded by cholera, 70% inhabitants were attacked and 80% had been inoculated. What is the minimum percentage of the inoculated who had been attacked? Give reasons. 4

  3. Answer the following questions

    1. Mention, in each case, the most appropriate diagram to represent, the following data:

      1. distribution of the number of candidates according to the number of marks scored by each at an examination.

      2. total value of a country's exports and imports during the years 1985 to 1994.

      3. annual turnover of a manufacturing company during ten years

      4. distribution of actual outlay in the different public sectors during the last five-year plan 4

    2. The following table gives the distribution of life-times of 400 electric bulbs

      Life-time (in hours)

      Range 300 − 399

      Range 400 − 499

      Range 500 − 599

      Range 600 − 699

      Range 700 − 799

      Range 800 − 899

      Range 900 − 999

      Range 1000 − 1099

      Range 1100 − 1199

      Number of bulbs

      Bulbs = 14

      Bulbs = 46

      Bulbs = 58

      Bulbs = 76

      Bulbs = 68

      Bulbs = 62

      Bulbs = 48

      Bulbs = 22

      Bulbs = 6

      1. Find: The percentage of bulbs whose life-times are at least 500 but less than 1000 hours

      2. Find: The percentage of bulbs with life-times of at least 900 hours (10).

  4. Answer the following questions

    1. State whether The following statements are true or false. Give reasons for your answer. 6. Answer the following questions

      1. In a mechanical engineering class, 80% male students completed the course in due time of four years whereas 100% female students did the same Therefore, the performance of female students is generally better than male students.

      2. Two students got the following marks in three examinations: Student A: 60/100 72/80 35/50 Student B: 48/80 108/120 105/150 It is claimed that B has better performance than A.

      3. The salary of a person is first increased by 18% and then decreased by 5%. His net increase is 12.1%. 6

    2. An investor buys Rs. 2400 worth of shares of a company each month. During the first six months, he bought the shares at a price of Rs. 20, Rs. 24, Rs. 30, Rs. 40, Rs. 48 and Rs. 60 per share. After six months, what is the average price per share paid by him? 6

Paper II

Section I

  1. Answer the following questions

    1. Distinguish between Parliamentary and Presidential forms of Government. Do you think that changing over to Presidential form will be a solution for better governance? Substantiate your answer (About 250 words). (40) OR

    2. What is the position of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of India? Discuss its role as a guardian of the Constitution (About 250 words).

  2. Answer the following questions

    1. In what ways do land reforms help agricultural growth? Briefly state the aim of land reforms as envisaged in the Eighth Five Year Plan (About 250 words). 40 OR

    2. Do you agree with the view that, in a country like India, a tax on wealth would be a useful supplement to the income tax? Argue the case in the light of Raja Chelliah Tax Reform

    Committee Report (About 250 words).

  3. Answer the following questions

    1. What is ‘greenhouse effect’ What are its adverse effects on the Earth's environment? What steps are being taken to check the same (About 250 words)? (40) OR

    2. What is AIDS? Describe its salient features (About 250 words).

Section II

  1. Answer any two of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words) (20 + 20)

    1. Explain the functions of the Estimates Committee.

    2. Describe the non-federal features of the Council of States.

    3. What are the constitutional rights of the citizens of India? What do you think about the demand of the NRI's for dual citizenship?

    4. Describe the salient features of Anti-Defection Law.

  2. Answer any two of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words) (20 + 20)

    1. Does reduction in fiscal deficit necessarily assure reduction in inflation?

    2. What policy has the Government of India adopted in recent years to protect our environment, control pollution and maintain ecological balance? State briefly.

    3. Do you think that income tax reduces economic incentives? Give your reasons.

    4. What has been the rationale for deregulating commercial bank's lending rates as a policy strategy?

  3. Answer any two of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words) (20 + 20)

    1. What do you understand by Deccan Trap? Describe its characteristics.

    2. Why have the rivers of the peninsular India well-defined rigid channels in sharp contrast to the Himalayan rivers?

    3. What is ‘intensity of rainfall’ Discuss its importance to Indian farmers.

    4. What is drip irrigation? Why is it considered the most efficient method of irrigation?

  4. Answer any two of the following (Answer to each question should be in about 150 words) (20 + 20)

    1. What is lead-free petrol? What are its merits and demerits?

    2. What is PSLV? Describe its significance for India's space programme.

    3. What do you understand by ‘Karnal Technology’ What is it used for?

    4. What is ‘amniocentesis’ What has made it a controversial technique?

Section III

  1. Answer four questions from three groups (Answer to each question should be in about 25 words): (30)

    1. Group A

      1. What are fringe benefits?

      2. What is croup of 77?

      3. Which sector of the economy is the informal sector?

      4. What is Call Money?

      5. Why do the Western Chats receive more rainfall than the Eastern Chats?

      6. Name the industry which is located at each of the following places

        1. Bongaigaon

        2. Alwaye

        3. Kapurthala

    2. Group B

      1. Define Financial Emergency. How many times has this been proclaimed so far?

      2. What is the present status of the right to property as a Fundamental Right?

      3. Why is Article 32 considered as the cornerstone of the Constitution?

      4. What is a bicameral legislature? Mention the states that have a bicameral legislature in our country.

      5. Explain the scope of Article 331.

      6. Explain the status of the Ministers known as ‘Ministers of State’

    3. Group C

      1. What is ELISA? What is it used for?

      2. What are VSATs? What are they used for?

      3. What is pacemaker? How does it work?

      4. What do the following stand for

        1. IREDA

        2. APPLE

        3. INMAS

      5. What is El Nino? What is its relevance to India?

      6. What is bioremediation?