IAS Mains Geology Papers 1989

IAS Mains Geology 1989

Paper I

Section A

  1. Explain any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Concept of ocean floor spreading

    2. Vertical walls of incised meanders

    3. Karst topography

    4. The structural features under which the beds X, Y and Z (X being the oldest and Z the youngest) repeat as follows:

      1. X-Y-Z-Z-Y-X

      2. Z-Y-X-X-Y-Z

      3. X-Y-Z-X-Y-Z

  2. Draw neat diagrams only (no description) to illustrate:

    1. Development of medial moraines and direction of movement of glacier

    2. Effects of normal faults on folded strata

    3. Doubly plunging anticline

    4. Internal constitution of the earth

  3. What is meant by the term drainage pattern? How is it different from drainage types? Discuss. Illustrate four different patterns of drainage and their significance with respect to geologic structure (s) and/or basal lithology.

  4. Discuss:

    1. The significance of linear structures in polydeformed terraines.

    2. Tectonic framework of India.

Section B

  1. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words:

    1. Methods of stratigraphic correlation.

    2. Evolutionary history of Horse.

    3. ‘Fossil plants are good indicators of palaeoecology’ Elaborate with examples.

    4. Delhi system of rocks are characterized by high grade of metamorphism than the older

    Aravallis. Discuss

  2. Tabulate the chronological subdivisions of standard stratigraphical scale. Compare it with the important subdivisions of the Indian Geological records.

  3. With the help of neat sketches describe the morphology of brachiopoda. Give four examples of fossil brachophoda from India, mentioning the stratigraphic horizon to which they belong.

  4. Discuss:

    1. Cretaceous-Eocene boundary

    2. Use of fossils in:

      1. reconstruction of past environments and climate

      2. geologic correlation

Paper II

Section A

  1. Write notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Polymorphism

    2. Isomorphism

    3. Feudomorphism

    4. Twinning and Twin Laws

  2. What are interference figures? How are they useful in determining the optic sing of a biaxial mineral?

  3. Describe the symmetry elements classes and forms of orthorhombic system and give four examples of mineral belonging to this system.

  4. Give an account of the physical, chemical and optical properties of the amphibole group of minerals with special emphasis on their mode, of occurrence.

Section B

  1. Write notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:

    1. Heavy minerals and their significance

    2. Tenor of ores

    3. Soil types and their relation to groundwater Geology

    4. National Mineral Policy

  2. What are igneous rocks? Give the classification of igneous rocks which are in common use.

  3. Write an essay on the various methods of geological prospecting, bringing out their salient characteristics.

  4. Write detailed notes on the following:

    1. Conservation and utilisation of metallic minerals of India

    2. Application of geology in engineering works