IAS Mains Medical Science 2016 Expected Questions

  1. Describe the shoulder joint under the following headings : 6×5=30

    (i) Type of joint (Classification of joint)

    (ii) Movements occurring at this joint

    (iii) List main ligaments

    (iv) Name the muscles acting at this joint (Do not describe each muscle)

    (v) Applied anatomy of dislocation of shoulder joint

    (vi) What is meant by the term “frozen shoulder” (2012)

  2. Describe the shoulder joint under the following heads. [2.5*4 =10] 1. Type 2. Movements 3. Muscles 4. Applied anatomy (2013)

  3. Describe the zones and lobes of prostate gland. Add a note on applied anatomy of benign prostatic hypertrophy.(2014)

  4. Describe the thyroid gland under the following heads. 1.lobes 2. Relations 3. Surgical anatomy (2013)

  5. Describe the nerve supply of tongue correlating it with its development. Add a note on its blood supply and lymphatic drainage along with applied anatomy. 10 (2011)

  6. Define porto caval anastomosis. What are their sites? Write also the anastomosing vessels on each site with its applied anatomy. 10. (2011)

  7. Discuss relations and supports of uterus. Add a note on its applied anatomy. 15 (2011)

  8. Describe the blood supply and lymphatic drainage of stomach. Add a note on the applied anatomy of both. 9+3=12 (2010)

  9. Describe the blood supply, nerve supply and lymphatic drainage of the mammary gland. (2009)

  10. Describe the gross anatomy of caecum and vermiform appendix. Add a brief note on its applied anatomy.(2006)

  11. Describe the lymphatic drainage of mammary gland (breast). Give an account of its applied anatomy (20).(2006)

  12. Describe the boundaries of inguinal canal. Add a note on the anatomy of different types of inguinal hernias.(2014)

  13. Describe the gross anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal diaphragm. Mention the structures that pass through it. (2009)

  14. Describe pelvic diaphragm; write in brief about its applied anatomy.

  15. Describe the morphological relations of kidney. Add a note on relations of right kidney.

  16. Describe the gross anatomical features and relations of kidney. Explain its arterial supply and vascular segments. Add a note on the development of kidney.

  17. What are the functions of placenta? What do you mean by feto-placental unit?

  18. Describe the morphological features of full term placenta. Name any five congenital malformations of placenta.

  19. Describe the development of face with the help of a diagram. Mention the anomalies associated with it.(2006)

  20. Give an account of blood supply of heart. Add a brief note on its applied anatomy (20).(2006)

  21. Describe the steps in development of uterus. Name any four congenital malformations of uterus. [6 + 4 = 10]( 2013)

  22. Name the functions of placenta. List any four malformations of placenta. [10]( 2013)

  23. Describe the development of heart chambers. Mention the common congenital anomalies and explain the developmental reasons for them. 14+6=20 (2010)

  24. Describe the development of the testis. (b) explain its descent into the scrotal sac. (c) add a note on its anomalies. (2009)

  25. Describe the structures forming the floor of fourth ventricle of brain. (2006)

  26. Describe the ventricles of brain. Add a note on the circulation of csf. Mention the usual site of collection of csf and state the anatomical reason for selecting this site. 14+4+2=20 (2010)

  27. Tabulate the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of eyeball along with their nerve supply and action(s) (2012)

  28. What is accommodation of eye? How is the eye accommodated for near vision? Why does a person start having difficulty in reading after the age of 40 years though the visual acuity is 6/6 (20)? (2006)

  29. What is the mechanism of accommodation in eye? Why near point recedes in old age? [10](2013)

  30. Enumerate the branches of facial nerve and write a brief note on bell’s palsy. (2014)

  31. Explain the origin and course of facial nerve. Describe its functional components and distribution. What is bell’s palsy and give the anatomical reasons for the presenting signs? 4+6+2=12 (2010)

  32. Give an outline of anatomy of facial nerve mentioning its clinical significance. (20) (2007)

  33. Name the contractile proteins in skeletal muscle. What is the electron microscopic appearance of muscle? Write sequence of events in muscular contraction. 15 2011

  34. Define synapse; enumerate the steps of synaptic transmission. What is the significance of synaptic delay? [10] 2013

  35. Discuss in short the structure and sequence of events at neuromuscular junction during nerve impulse transmission. Add a note on myasthenia gravis. 6+7+7 2011

  36. Define reflex. Classify them with examples and their significance in daily life. 12 2012

  37. Why pancreas is called a dual gland? What is the mechanism of ‘hyperphagia in insulin deficiency? How will you differentiate between hypoglycemic coma and hyper- glycemic coma? 2012

  38. Name the hormones of posterior pituitary and their function. What will happen in the deficiency of them (20)? 2006

  39. Describe the physiological basis of signs and symptoms of insulin deficiency. Explain the saying, starvation in the midst of plenty.

  40. What are the growth curves of various body organs after birth? Enumerate the various factors affecting growth. Discuss briefly clinical abnormalities related to growth. 7+6+7 2011

  41. What is the role of adh in maintaining the plasma osmolarity and volume? What will happen in its deficiency? 8+8+4=20 2010

  42. What are the hormones which regulate growth and development of human body during adolescence? How development is regulated by them? (20) 2007

  43. Describe the endocrine functions of hypothalamus. Enumerate the clinical features of acromegaly 2007

  44. Explain the term ovulation. Name the hormones necessary for ovulation. How is the knowledge of ovulation time helpful? 2014

  45. What are the advantages of breast-feeding? Why is there amenorrhoea during lactation? 2014

  46. Discuss briefly the role of different hormones in lactation. Why there is amenorrhoea during lactation and what is its importance 2012

  47. Describe normal menstruation. Why is it absent during the first few months of lactation (20)?

  48. Write the steps in lactation. What are the advantages of breast feeding?

  49. Write about’ the tests which indicate that the female is ovulating.

  50. Define menstrual cycle. What changes occur in the uterus during the cycle? Name the common disorders of the menstrual cycle.

  51. Describe the morphological characteristics of platelets and their functions. What will happen in their deficiency?

  52. List the various types of cells found in the blood and their functions. What will happen due to deficiency of each type?

  53. Define menstrual cycle. What changes occur in the uterus during the cycle? Name the common disorders of the menstrual cycle.

  54. Write the morphology of red blood corpuscles. List the factors required for their formation and mention how the shape is advantageous.

  55. Discuss in short the morphology, functions and disorders of platelets.

  56. Describe the normal development and differentiation of haemotopoitic cells.

  57. What are the effects of exercise on cardio- vascular system? What is the importance of exercise in maintaining the health of cvs

  58. Define sinus arrhythmia. How it produced and what is its clinical significance (20)?

  59. Describe the role of baroreceptors in regulation of normal b.p. Why is it effective only in short term regulation of blood pressure (b.p)?

  60. Define blood pressure. Enumerate the various factors affecting the blood pressure. How is the blood pressure regulated in the long term?

  61. Enumerate the functions of cardiovascular system. What will happen if valves would not have been there?

  62. Define cardiac output. What factors maintain it? What happens to it during exercise and how?

  63. What is obstructive jaundice? Enumerate the various biochemical tests which you would prescribe to the patient. Write their biochemical basis of changes you expect.

  64. Define jaundice. Write briefly about, formation and fate of bilirubin. Give the major differences between the three, types of jaundice.

  65. What are the tests based on the intermediary metabolic functions of liver? Explain the basis of each of these tests.

  66. Explain: (i) non-standard amino acids and their biological functions. (ii) importance of enzyme assay to assess liver function.

  67. Write a note on posttranslational modifications of protein.

  68. Outline the components of the translation apparatus in eukaryotes.’

  69. There is a precise molecular mechanism for initiating and terminating the synthesis of a polypeptide on ribosome. Explain in your own terms what happens if the termination has failed.

  70. The protein molecular ultimately needed by a cell often differs from the polypeptide chain synthesized. How is the chain modified to impart biological activity? Describe with suitable examples.

  71. Enumerate the various anti-oxidant vitamins and write about any one of them.

  72. Avidin, an egg protein has great affinity for a vitamin. Discuss the biochemical role of that vitamin.

  73. Describe the role of vitamins in prevention of anemia.

  74. Explain the effect of anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbital/diphenylhydantoin) on the vitamin requirements in the body. State the role that the relevant vitamin/vitamins play(s) in the human body.

  75. What could be the nutritional deficiencies encountered in an ‘alcoholic’ person? Explain the reasons clearly.

  76. The use of oral contraceptives appears to increase the requirement of a vitamin. Which vitamin is involved? Explain why. How is this identified clinically?

  77. Enumerate with suitable examples vitamin coenzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions. describe at least three vitamins

  78. Write the various roles of calcium in the body. How blood calcium is level regulated?

  79. Which mineral irreversibly inhibits glycolysis? Discuss clinical manifestations due to its deficiency and toxicity.

  80. Nodular growth in neck is very common among population living in mountain areas. — Why? How will you investigate such cases?