IAS Mains-2016 Philosophy Syllabus

Paper-I

History and Problems of Philosophy:

  1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.

  2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.

  3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.

  4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God

  5. Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism

  6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.

  7. Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.

  8. Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.

  9. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.

  10. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the world and Temporality.

  11. Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.

  12. Carvaka: Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.

  13. Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhaa-ginaya; Bondage and Liberation.

  14. Schools of Buddhism: Prata tyasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada

  15. Nyaya-Vaiaesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.

  16. Samkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation

  17. Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.

  18. Mimamsa: Theory of Knowledge

  19. Schools of Vedanta: Brahman; aavara; atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avidya; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda

  20. Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

Paper II

Socio-Political Philosophy

  1. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.

  2. Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.

  3. Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability

  4. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.

  5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism

  6. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.

  7. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.

  8. Development and Social Progress.

  9. Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowernment.

  10. Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar

Philosophy of Religion

  1. Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World (Indian and Western).

  2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).

  3. Problem of Evil.

  4. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.

  5. Reason, Revelation and Faith.

  6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).

  7. Religion without God.

  8. Religion and Morality.

  9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.

  10. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non-cognitive.