Baluchistan Controversy [ Detailed Analysis - Policies & Governance ]


Baluchistan is the province of the Pakistan, its provincial capital and the largest city is Quetta. Baluchistan shares the border with Punjab (India). Baluchistan is known for its ancient culture and dry desert climate.

Baluchistan history 

  • Pakistan Baluchistan had become part of the Hardpan cultural orbit. The religion was fully Islamized by the 10th century and became part of the territory of the Saffarids of Zaranj.
  • Baluchistan is the large producer of coal and is rich in minerals.
Location of Baluchistan on Map

Location of Baluchistan on Map

Location of Baluchistan on Map

Detail of Conflicts

  • The war and conflicts called guerilla wars were started by Baluchistan nationalist against the government of Pakistan and Iran in the Baluchistan region. Baluchistan is rich in minerals, coal, natural gas, Sulphur, fluoride, gold it is the most undeveloped province of Pakistan. Despite being rich in minerals, Baluchistan is poor and undeveloped. In 2005, a rebellion by Baluchistan started against the Islamic Republic of Iran.
  • Human right activists have predicted that the Baluchistanis would be degraded on their own land.
  • The disputed area of Baluchistan is southern part of Sistani O Baluchistan Province with Iran in the west, and the Pakistani province of Baluchistan in the east.
  • Most of the Balochi’s are habituated in the parts, which fall in the Pakistan region.

First Conflict

  • Baluchistan was divided into four parts under British Raj. The Khan of Kalat, Ahmad Yar khan, declared Kalat’s independence as this was the only option given by British Prime Minister Clement Attlee.
  • On 27 March 1948, Pakistan formally added Kalat to its own territory and in April 1948, the military invaded the territory. Within a month, Yar Khan formally signed truce but his younger brothers, Prince Agha Abdul Karim Baloch and Muhammad Rahim, refused to lay down arms. Yar Khan got success to retain his territory until the province dissolution in 1955.

Second conflict

  • The conflict was started by Nawab Nauroz Khan for the one unit policy, which decreased government representation for tribal leaders.
  • He and his followers started a guerrilla war against Pakistan and were arrested and kept in prison.
  • His family members were hanged to death for the charges of murder of Pakistani troops.

Third Conflict

  • This conflict was started because of the new constitution in 1956 to abolish the “one unit” concept. In 1970 Pakistani President Yahya Khan got success in abolishing “one unit” policy. After this, an 800 km2 costal area was purchased from Oman by the Pakistani government.

Fourth conflict

  • This time Iran raised the conflict and to fight with Iranian Baluchistan used guerilla warfare.
  • According to some data, Pakistani military lost 300 to 400 Soldiers during the conflict with Balochi separatists, while 8000 to 9000 Balochi soldiers and civilians were killed.

Fifth Conflict 

  • In 2005, the Baluch Leaders presented agenda to Pakistani government.
  • Their demands included controlling more on province’s resources and to get more military bases.
  • In 2006 Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti, was killed in fighting with the Pakistani Army in which least 60 Pakistani soldiers and 7 officers were killed.
  • Pakistani government charged Nawab for deadly bomb blast attack on President Pervez Musharraf.
  • On august 2009, Khan of Kalat Mir Suleiman Dawood declared himself ruler of Baluchistan.
  • After 2012, Baloch conflicts got more attention on international level with children and women on the roads.
  • Islamabad has accused its neighbor India of supporting the insurgency of Baluchistan.

Key Issues due to wars

There are many issues due to these wars in Baluchistan like economic inequality, human right violations, and development issues like loss of gas revenue, regional inequality, poor education, and weak military.

Baluchistan has foreign support from countries such as:

  • Afghanistan
  • India
  • Israel
  • Iraq
  • Soviet union
  • US

Separatists Movement of Pakistan

  • The separatist group was founded by Jumma Khan Marri in 1964 in Damascus.
  • The Baloch Liberation Front (BLF) is the name of group.
  • This group is working to include establishment of an independent state of Baluchistan after separating it from Pakistan and Iran.
  • The active group took credit for a series bomb attacks in market and railway lines.
  • In 2006, the BLA was declared a terrorist organization by Pakistani government.

- Published on: September 22, 2016