Hydrogeology Revised Syllabus as per 2016 Notification

Section A: Origin, occurrence and distribution of water

  • Water on earth;

  • Types of water — meteoric, juvenile, magmatic and sea water;

  • Hydrological Cycle and its components;

  • Water balance;

  • Water-bearing properties of rocks — porosity, permeability, specific yield and specific retention;

  • Vertical distribution of water;

  • Zone of aeration and zone of saturation;

  • Classification of rocks according to their water-bearing properties;

  • Aquifers;

  • Classification of aquifers;

  • Concepts of drainage basins and groundwater basins;

  • Aquifer parameters- transrnissivity and storage coefficient;

  • Water table and piezometric surface;

  • Fluctuations of water table and piezometric surface;

  • Barometric and tidal efficiencies;

  • Water table contour maps;

  • Hydrographs;

  • Springs;

  • Geologic and geomorphic controls on groundwater;

  • Hydrostratigraphic units;

  • Groundwater provinces of India.

  • Hydrogeology of arid zones of India;

  • Hydrogeology of wet lands.

Section B: Groundwater Hydraulics

  • Theory of groundwater flow;

  • Darcy's law and its applications;

  • Determination of permeability in laboratory and in field;

  • Flow through aquifers;

  • steady, unsteady and radial flow conditions;

  • Evaluation of aquifer parameters of confined, semi-confined and unconfined aquifers -Thiem, Thies, Jacob and Walton's methods;

  • Groundwater modelling.

Section C: Groundwater Exploration and Water

  • Well Construction Geologic and hydrogeology methods of exploration;

  • Role of remote sensing in groundwater exploration;

  • Hydrogeomorphic and lineament 'napping;

  • Surface geophysical methods — seismic, gravity, geo-electrical and magnetic methods;

  • Types of water wells and methods of construction;

  • Design, development, maintenance and revitalization of wells;

  • Sub-surface geophysical methods;

  • Yield characteristics of wells;

  • Pumping tests- methods, data analysis and interpretation;

Section D: Groundwater Quality

  • Physical and chemical properties of water;

  • Quality criteria for different uses;

  • Graphical presentation of groundwater quality data;

  • Groundwater quality in different provinces in India;

  • Groundwater contamination;

  • natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic contaminants;

  • Saline water intrusion;

  • Radioisotopes in hydroLteological studies.

Section E: Groundwater Management

  • Groundwater problems related to foundation work, mining, canals and tunnels;

  • Over-exploitation of groundwater and groundwater mining;

  • Groundwater problems in urban areas;

  • Ground water management in arid and semi-arid areas;

  • Climate change impact on gi-oundwater resources;

  • Concept of sustainable development of groundwater resources;

  • Groundwater management —supply side and demand side management;

  • Rainwater harvesting and managed aquifer recharge;

  • Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater;

  • Groundwater legislation.