Geology Paper II Revised Syllabus as per 2016 Notification

Section A: Mineralogy and Geochemistry & Isotope Geology

  • External symmetry of crystals: Symmetry Elements, methods of projection, derivation of 32 classes, Hermaun Muguin notation.

  • Internal symmetry of crystals: Derivation of 230 space groups, diffraction of crystals by X-rays, Braggs’ law.

  • Principles of optical mineralogy : Optical mineralogy, polarized light, behaviour of isotropic and anisotropic minerals in polarized light, refractive index, double refraction, birefringence, sign of elongation, interference figures, 2V, dispersion in minerals.

  • Optic sign, pleotropic scheme and determination of fast and slow vibrations and accessory plates.

  • Introduction to mineralogy: Definition and classification of minerals. Structural and chemical principles of crystals / minerals, chemical bonds, ionic radii, coordination number (CN) and polyhedron.

  • Structure, chemistry, physical and optical characters and par agenesis of mineral groups: Olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, mica and spinel groups; Feldspar, quartz, feldspathoid, alumina silicate, epidote and garnet groups.

  • Accessory minerals: Apatite, calcite, corundum, scapolite, sphene and zircon.

  • Earth mineralogy: Average mineralogical composition of crust and mantle, mineral transformations in the mantle with depth.

  • Earth in relation to the solar system and universe, cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites.

  • Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements.

  • Trace elements and REE and their importance in fractional crystallization during magmatic / partial melting.

  • Elementary crystal chemistry and thermodynamics. Introduction to isotope geochemistry.

  • Geochronology and age of the Earth: Law of Radioactivity; Principles of isotopic dating, Decay schemes and Derivation of equation of age.

  • Rb/Sr, U- Th –Pb methods of dating the rocks.

  • Age of the Earth.

  • Geochemistry and principles of evolution of hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere.

  • Geochemical cycle and principles of geochemical prospecting.

Section B: Igneous Petrology

  • Origin of magmas: Mantle, onset of partial melting of mantle, processes of partial melting in mantle, mantle-magmas in relation to degree and depth-level of partial melting.

  • Phase equilibrium in igneous systems: Binary and ternary systems.

  • Bowen's reaction principle: Reaction series and its application to pathogenesis.

  • Magmatic evolution and differentiation: Fractional crystallization, gravitational differentiation, gas streaming, liquid immiscibility and assimilation.

  • Structures and textures: Definition, description, rock examples and genetic implications of common structures and textures of igneous rocks.

  • Classification of igneous rocks: Mode, CIPW norm, IUGS and other standard classifications;

  • Magmatism and tectonics: Inter-relationship between tectonic settings and igneous rock suites.

  • Igneous rock suites: Form, structure, texture, modal mineralogy, pathogenesis and distribution of Ultramafic

  • rocks: Dunite-peridotite-pyroxenite suite;

  • kimberlites, lamprophyres, lamproites, komatiites;

  • Basic rocks: Gabbro-norite-anorthosite-troctolite suite, Dolerites; Basalts and related rocks;

  • Intermediate rocks: Diorite-monzonite-syenite suite; Andesites and related rocks;

  • Acidic rocks: Granite-syenite-granodiorite-tonalite suite; Rhyolites and related rocks;

  • Alkaline rocks: Shonkinite, ijolite, urtite, melteigite, malignite, alkali gabbros, alkali basalt, alkali granite, alkali

  • syenite, nepheline syenite and phonolite;

  • Carbonatites; Ophiolite suite.

  • Petrogenetic provinces.

  • Continental areas: Volcanic-Flood basalts-Tholeiites (Deccan Trap, Columbia River basalts);

  • Layered gabbroic intrusions: The Bushveld complex, Skaergaard intrusion, Still water complex.

  • Plutonic: Carbonatites and alkaline rock complexes of India;

  • Oceanic Rift valleys: MORB- Tholeiites-Ophiolites

Section C : Metamorphic Petrology & Processes

  • Concepts and Theory: Types of Metamorphism and their controlling factors;

  • Common minerals of metamorphic rocks;

  • Field observations, petrographic classification of common metamorphic rocks;

  • Metamorphic facies and facies series.

  • Effects of Metamorphism: Phase diagrams and graphic

  • representation of mineral assemblages;

  • Prograde and retrograde metamorphism, Matasomatism;

  • Deformation textures and textures related to recrystallization;

  • Metamorphic reactions, elemental exchange and Pressure – Temperature conditions of Isograds;

  • Mineral assemblage’s equilibrium/reaction textures and geo-thermo barometry.

  • Experimental and thermodynamic appraisal of metamorphic reactions;

  • Role of fluids in metamorphic reactions.

  • Metamorphism types and products: Regional and thermal metamorphism of pelitic rocks.

  • Regional and thermal metamorphism of basic and ultrabasic rocks;

  • Regional and thermal metamorphism of impure, siliceous carbonate rocks;

  • Metamorphism of Granitoides, Charnockites and Migmatites.

  • Metamorphism in space and time: Plate tectonics and metamorphic processes;

  • Paired metamorphic belts, Archaean and Proterozoic terrains;

  • Extraterrestrial Metamorphism (Impact and Shock Metamorphism);

  • Polymetamorphism.

Section D: Sedimentology

  • Provenance and digenesis of sediments.

  • Sedimentary textures.

  • Framework, matrix and cement of terrigenous sediments.

  • Definition, measurement and interpretation of grain size.

  • Elements of hydraulics.

  • Primary structures, palaeocurrent analysis.

  • Biogenic and chemical sedimentary structures.

  • Sedimentary environment and facies.

  • Facies modeling for marine, non-marine and mixed sediments.

  • Tectonics and sedimentation.

  • Classification and definition of sedimentary basins.

  • Sedimentary basins of India.

  • Cyclic sediments.

  • Seismic and sequence stratigraphy.

  • Purpose and scope of basin analysis.

  • Stratum contours and isopach maps.

Section E: Environmental Geology and Natural Hazards

  • Fundamental concepts of Environmental Geology - its scope, objectives, and aims.

  • Earth’s thermal environment and Climates.

  • Global warming.

  • Greenhouse effect.

  • Ozone depletion–Ice sheets and fluctuation in sea levels.

  • Concepts of ecosystem.

  • Earth’s major ecosystems terrestrial and aquatic.

  • Meteorology as environmental science.

  • Air Pollution, sources of pollution, pollution due to dust and waste disposal.

  • National and International standards.

  • Environmental health hazards.

  • Mining, opencast, underground, disposal of industrial and radio-active waste, dumping stacking, rehandling, management, mineral processing, tailing ponds, acid mine drainage, siltation, case studies.

  • Mining below water table, mine water discharges, regional effects on water regime.

  • Noise levels- national standards, mining machinery, ill effects.

  • Air sampling techniques – respirable dust samplers, high volume air samplers, personal sampling pumps, weather monitoring equipment’s, automatic recorders.

  • Elements of Environmental Impact Assessment – impacts, primary, secondary, prediction, assessment, base-line data generation, physical, biological, cultural, socioeconomic aspects.

  • Carrying capacity based developmental planning – Assimilative capacity – supportive capacity – Resource based planning – Institutional strategies.

  • Sustainable Developmental Planning - Applications of GIS in Environmental Management.

  • Environmental Legislations in India.

  • Concepts and principles: Natural hazards – preventive/ precautionary measures – floods, landslides, earthquakes, river and coastal erosion.

  • Distribution, magnitude and intensity of earthquakes.

  • Neotectonics and seismic hazard assessment.

  • Preparation of seismic hazard maps.

  • Impact of seismic hazards on long and short term environmental conditions.

  • Mechanism of landslides causes of major floods, cyclones and storms.

  • Deforestation and land degradation.

  • Coastal erosion, its causes and control of Geological hazards and crisis management.