LSAT 2007: Section 3

Time-35 minutes 25 Questions

Directions

The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. Each problem has certain set of conditions. Mark that answer in your answer sheet which seems the most accurate of all the options.

  1. Situation: Someone living in a cold climate buys a winter coat, one which is stylish but not warmer enough to protect fron the cold in order to appear sophisticated. Analysis: People are sometimes willing to sacrifice sensual comfort or pleasure for the sake of appearances. Which situation best describes the analysis provided for the situation above?

    1. A person buys an automobile to commute to work even though public transportation is quick and reliable.

    2. A parent buys a car seat for a young child because it is more colorful and more comfortable for the child than the other car seats on the market, though no safer.

    3. A couple buys a particular wine even though their favorite wine is less expensive and better tasting because they think it will impress their dinner guests.

    4. A person sets her thermostat at a low temperature during the winter because she is concerned about the environmental damage caused by using fossil fuels to heat her home.

    5. An acrobat convinces the circus that employs him to purchase an expensive outfit for him so that he can wear it during his act to impress the audience.

    Answer: c

  2. Jimmy replaced his old gas water heater with a new, pilotless, gas water heater. But the gas bills increased after he did so. Each of the following, if true, contributes to an explanation of the increase mentioned above EXCEPT:

    1. The new water heater uses a smaller percentage of the gas used by Jimmy's household than did the old one.

    2. Shortly after the new water heater was installed, Jimmy's uncle came along to shift with him, thereby increasing the usage of the heater.

    3. After having done his laundry at a laundromat, Jimmy bought and started using a gas dryer when he replaced his water heater.

    4. Jimmy's utility company raised the rates for gas consumption following installation of the new water heater.

    5. The weather got extremely cold and hence the new water heater resulted in heavy gas usage.

    Answer: a

  3. Carolyn: The artist Marc Quinn has displayed, behind a glass plate, biologically replicated fragments of Sir John Sulston's DNA. He calls it a “conceptual portrait” of Sulston. But to give the conviction of portrait, something must bear a recognizable resemblance to its subject. Arnold: I disagree. Quinn's conceptual portrait which is displayed is almost equal to his realistic portrait, for it holds actual instructions according to which Sulston was created. The dialogue provides most support for the claim that Carolyn and Arnold disagree over whether the object described by Quinn as a conceptual portrait of Sir John Sulston

    1. should be considered to be art

    2. should be considered to be Quinn's work

    3. bears a recognizable resemblance to Sulston

    4. contains instructions according to which Sulston was created

    5. is actually a portrait of Sulston

    Answer: e

  4. Many corporations have started with a trend to hang motivational posters on their walls so as to keep their employees boosted. However employees are usually boosted and motivated by themselves due to the flaring incentives and promotions awaiting them so as to keep them motivated to increase their productivity. So these corporations'use of motivational posters is unlikely to achieve its intended purpose. The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument

    1. fails to consider whether corporations that do not currently use motivational posters would increase their employees'motivation to work productively if they began using the posters

    2. takes for granted that, with respect to their employees'motivation to work productively, corporations that decorate their halls with motivational posters are representative of corporations in general

    3. fails to consider that even if motivational posters do not have one particular beneficial effect for corporations, they may have similar effects that are equally beneficial

    4. does not adequately address the possibility that employee productivity is strongly affected by factors other than employees'motivation to work productively

    5. fails to consider that even if employees are already motivated to work productively, motivational posters may increase that motivation

    Answer: e

  5. Atrens: An early entomologist came upto a conclusion observing ants that they bring food to their neighbours looking at them carrying particles to neighboring ant colonies. However further research revealed that the ants were emptying their own colony's dumping site. The earlier entomologist was wrong. Atrens's conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

    1. Ant societies do not interact in all the same ways that human societies interact.

    2. There is only weak evidence for the view that ants have the capacity to make use of objects as gifts.

    3. Ant dumping sites do not contain particles that could be used as food.

    4. The ants to whom the particles were brought never carried the particles into their own colonies.

    5. The entomologist cited retracted his conclusion when it was determined that the particles the ants carried came from their dumping site.

    Answer: c

  6. Jablonski owns a car dealership. She looked at the accident statistics and was disturbed. She wanted to help the community so as to encourage better driving and reduce the number of accidents. For this she donated cars to driver education programs at area schools for over five years. Also some people of the community have purchased cars from her dealership. Which one of the following propositions is best illustrated by the passage?

    1. The only way to reduce traffic accidents is through driver education programs.

    2. Altruistic actions sometimes have positive consequences for those who perform them.

    3. Young drivers are the group most likely to benefit from driver education programs.

    4. It is usually in one's best interest to perform actions that benefit others.

    5. An action must have broad community support if it is to be successful.

    Answer: b

  7. Antonio: One can live a balanced life which does not involves much risks and adventure by never deviating from the middle course. But then one loses the happiness derived from uncertain successes and the joy of adventure. They cannot go very far by following the middle path. Marla: But one who, in the interests of moderation, never risks going too far is actually failing to live a life of moderation: One must be moderate even in one's moderation. Antonio and Marla disagree over

    1. whether it is desirable for people occasionally to take great chances in life

    2. what a life of moderation requires of a person to give upon

    3. whether the person can accept other virtues along with moderation

    4. how often a person ought to deviate from the middle course in life

    5. whether it is desirable for people to be moderately spontaneous

    Answer: b

  8. Advertisement: Fabric-Softener, when used while washing clothes leaves clothes soft and fluffy. The perfume in it gives a light to senses. This we say as per the test result which we conducted over 100 consumers to prove Fabric-Soft is best. In the test, each consumer was given one towel washed with Fabric-Soft and one towel washed without it. Ninety-nine percent of the consumers agreed that the Fabric-Soft towel was the best. So Fabric-Soft is the most effective fabric softener available. The advertisement's reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it fails to consider whether

    1. any of the consumers tested are allergic to fabric softeners

    2. Fabric-Soft is more or less harmful to the environment than other fabric softeners

    3. Fabric-Soft is much cheaper or more expensive than other fabric softeners

    4. the consumers tested find the benefits of using fabric softeners worth the expense

    5. the consumers tested had the opportunity to evaluate fabric softeners other than Fabric-Soft

    Answer: e

  9. Naturalist: There have been recent claims that the Tasmanian tiger is not extinct. However this is not true. The habitat of these tigers was taken over for sheep farming and grazing decades ago. This resulted in the systematic extinction of the tiger from its habitat. Moreover, no hard proofs of its survival such as carcasses or tracks are found by the naturalists. Though sometimes, somewhere the animal is sighted, the Tasmanian tiger no longer exists. Which one of the following is an assumption on which the naturalist's argument depends?

    1. Sheep farming drove the last Tasmanian tigers to starvation by chasing them from their natural habitat.

    2. Some scavengers in Tasmania are capable of destroying tiger carcasses without a trace.

    3. Every naturalist working in the Tasmanian tiger's natural habitat has looked systematically for hard core evidence of the tiger's survival.

    4. The Tasmanian tiger did not make a major move and adapt a different habitat when his habitat was taken over by sheep.

    5. Those who have reported sightings of the Tasmanian tiger are not experienced naturalists.

    Answer: d

  10. Advertisers have known from research that people tend to have more inclination and positive mindframe when they are shown advertisements positively about things that they have nuetral or negative impression of. This would further help if the prose is accompanied by the pictures as well. Therefore, advertisers are likely to ____ Which one of the following most logically completes the argument?

    1. use little if any written prose in their advertisements

    2. try to encourage people to develop positive attitudes about products that can be better represented pictorially than in prose

    3. place their advertisements on television rather than in magazines

    4. highlight the desirable features of the advertised product by contrasting them pictorially with undesirable features of a competing product

    5. create advertisements containing pictures of things most members of the target audience like

    Answer: e

  11. It has been revealed recently that the mercury level in the saltwater fish has been increasing continuosly than they were 100 years ago from the evidence that was collected from the feathers taken from the recent sea birds and the feathers of the birds stuffed and preserved in the 1880s. The mercury level is known because mercury that accumulates in a seabird's feathers as the feathers grow is derived from fish eaten by the bird. The argument depends on assuming that

    1. the proportion of a seabird's diet consisting of fish was not as high, on average, in the 1880s as it is today

    2. the amount of mercury in a saltwater fish depends on the amount of pollution in the ocean habitat of the fish

    3. mercury derived from fish is essential for the normal growth of a seabird's feathers

    4. the stuffed seabirds whose feathers were tested for mercury were not fully grown

    5. the process used to preserve birds in the 1880s did not substantially decrease the amount of mercury in the birds'feathers

    Answer: e

  12. Novel X and Novel Y are both semiautobiographical novels containing situations and conditions much similar to each other therbey suspecting the plagiarism on the part of one of the authors. However, its possible that these incidences are just coincidental and not purposely done as both the authors are from very similar backgrounds and have led similar lives. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion drawn in the argument?

    1. Novel X and Novel Y are both semiautobiographical novels, and the two novels contain many very similar themes and situations.

    2. The fact that Novel X and Novel Y are both semiautobiographical novels and contain many very similar themes and situations might lead one to suspect plagiarism on the part of one of the authors.

    3. The author of Novel X and the author of Novel Y are from very similar backgrounds and have led very similar lives.

    4. It is less likely that one of the authors of Novel X or Novel Y is guilty of plagiarism than that the similarity of themes and situations in the two novels is merely coincidental.

    5. If the authors of Novel X and Novel Y are from very similar backgrounds and have led similar lives, suspicions that either of the authors plagiarized are very likely to be unwarranted.

    Answer: d

  13. Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy is one such therapy where the therapist can empathize with the patient's conscious beliefs and can reveal and bring it to the patient's notice and change the concious beliefs. This therapy is more powerful than other psychotherapy treatment as it affects the concious beliefs which itself helps to realize and change the unconcious beliefs unlike other therapies where therapists work on unconcious portion of mind of the patient. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the therapist's argument?

    1. Psychological problems are frequently caused by unconscious beliefs that could be changed with the aid of psychotherapy.

    2. It is difficult for any form of psychotherapy to be effective without focusing on mental states that are under the patient's direct conscious control.

    3. Cognitive psychotherapy is the only form of psychotherapy that focuses primarily on changing the patient's conscious beliefs.

    4. No form of psychotherapy which directs treatment on patient's unconscious beliefs and desires can be effective unless it also helps change beliefs that are under the patient's direct conscious control.

    5. All of a patient's conscious beliefs are under the patient's conscious control, however the other psychological states which the person experiences cannot be controlled effectively without the aid of psychotherapy.

    Answer: b

  14. Commentator: While distributing academic scholarship, sources are always cited, and the means and ways and requirements for the same are well-stated so that the selection can be made easier and convinient. This can be well understood through the example of open source software where the code of program can be changed as per the will of individual and no fees is required to be paid to the software producer. On the other hand, proprietary software is the sole property of producer and it can be changed only by paying the producer. This shows that open-source software better matches the values embodied in academic scholarship, and since scholarship is central to the mission of universities, universities should use only open-source software. Which of the following principles conforms to the commentator's reasoning most closely?

    1. Whatever software tools are most advanced and can achieve the goals of academic scholarship are the ones that should alone be used in universities.

    2. Universities should use the type of software technology that is least expensive, as long as that type of software technology is adequate for the purposes of academic scholarship.

    3. Universities should choose the type of software technology that best matches the values embodied in the activities that are central to the mission of universities.

    4. The form of software technology that best matches the values embodied in the activities that are central to the mission of universities is the most efficient form of software technology that the universities must use.

    5. A university should not pursue any activity that would block the achievement of the goals of academic scholarship at that university.

    Answer: c

  15. A survey conducted by a consumer magazine revealed that psycological treatment, whentaken for a longer period of time i.e.. For more than 6 months is much advantegeous rather than short term treatment. This is evident through the people's responses who have had this treatment. Only 20% stated that they felt better when they had less than 6 months of treatment while 36% responded positively to the treatment of more than 6 months. Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

    1. Of the respondents who had received treatment for longer than 6 months, 10 percent said that treatment made things worse.

    2. Patients who had received treatment for longer than 6 months were more likely to respond to the survey than were those who had received treatment for a shorter time.

    3. Patients who feel they are doing well in treatment tend to remain in treatment, while those who are doing poorly tend to quit earlier.

    4. Patients who were dissatisfied with their treatment were more likely to feel a need to express their feelings about it and thus to return the survey.

    5. Many psychologists encourage their patients to receive treatment for longer than 6 months.

    Answer: c

  16. Philosopher: Nations are artificial persons and not literally persons who have thoughts or feelings and can express them that way. Nor do the nations speak really, neither do they perform any action. And as a fact, they don't even have any moral rights or responsibilities. But without considering the nation a literal person, no nation can survive as it won't serve any responsibilites or rights on behalf of a person. And also nothing else could prompt people to make the sacrifices national citizenship demands. Obviously, then, a nation ____ Which one of the following most logically completes the philosopher's argument?

    1. cannot continue to exist unless something other than the false belief that the nation has moral rights motivates its citizens to make sacrifices

    2. cannot survive unless many of its citizens have some beliefs that are literally false

    3. can never be a target of moral praise or blame

    4. is not worth the sacrifices that its citizens make on its behalf

    5. should always be thought of in metaphorical rather than literal terms

    Answer: b

  17. There is a particular way of exercising the back and spine muscles. The muscles on opposite sides of the spine have also to be equally exercised and made flexible as the spine itself as the movement on opposite sides of the spine is equally important as the movement of the spine. Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

    1. Muscles on opposite sides of the spine that are equally well developed will be enough to keep the back in proper alignment.

    2. Exercising the muscles on opposite sides of the spine unequally tends to lead to unbalanced muscle development.

    3. Provided that one exercises the muscles on opposite sides of the spine equally, one will have a generally healthy back.

    4. If the muscles on opposite sides of the spine are exercised unequally, one's back will be irreparably damaged.

    5. One should exercise daily to ensure that the muscles on opposite sides of the spine keep the back in proper alignment.

    Answer: b

  18. Editorialist: Every culture fournishes the fact that family members have to be kept along in every situation and every condition of life. With this belief in mind, the family members also protect their family person incase he has done something wrong which is a crime in eyes of law. They think its morally right but this is not true. The reasoning in the abovesaid argument can be critisized on the grounds that this argument

    1. utilizes a single type of example for the purpose of justifying a broad generalization

    2. fails to consider the possibility that other moral principles would be widely recognized as overriding any obligation to protect a family member from harm

    3. presumes, without providing justification, that allowing the police to arrest an innocent person assists rather than obstructs justice

    4. accepts generally that there is no moral obligation to obey the law

    5. generalizes that the parents mentioned in the example are not mistaken about their child's innocence

    Answer: b

  19. Editor: Many candidates standing in election assure people that they will reduce governmental intrusion into voters'lives if they get elected. However voters prefer those candidates who rather than lessening the government intrusion, assist them while in problems. This assistance, however will require money which is to be collected through taxes, which can be considered a form of governmental intrusion. Thus, governmental intrusion into the lives of voters will rarely be substantially reduced over time in a democracy. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the editor's argument?

    1. Politicians who win their elections usually keep their campaign promises.

    2. Politicians make false promises of what they really intend to do once in office.

    3. The most common problems people have are financial problems.

    4. Governmental intrusion into the lives of voters is no more burdensome in nondemocratic countries than it is in democracies.

    5. Politicians who promise to do what they actually believe ought to be done are rarely elected.

    Answer: a

  20. The proposal to demolish the old train station should be accepted so that new development can be encouraged and economic health of the country can be increased. The local historical society which is opposing to demolish it, does not actually care to have long-term economic well-being. Which of the following arguments is similar to the explanation given above?

    1. It is necessary that our pivotal work of art be preserved. This might not go well with taxpayers, or even all critics. Nevertheless, our country needs to take up all the expenses which is needed to keep the work under proper condition.

    2. Documents of places which were constructed and are today historical evidences shouls be well preserved as their loss attains to loss of integrity of the historical record as a whole.

    3. You should have your hair cut no more than once a month. After all, beauticians suggest that their customers have their hair cut twice a month, and they do this as a way of generating more business for themselves.

    4. The committee should endorse the plan to postpone construction of the new expressway. Many residents of the neighborhoods that would be affected are fervently opposed to that construction, and the committee is obligated to avoid alienating those residents.

    5. You should avoid borrowing of money, be it only small amount as ultimately it get bigger and bigger as the interest accumulates with the passing time.

    Answer: c

  21. Ethicist: The herbivorous animals need to be fed with atleast sixteen pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Though that one pound of meat is more nutritious, the sixteen pounds of grain will be able to fill up more stomachs. Hence in the long term, it will be morally incorrect to consume meat. Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the ethicist's argument?

    1. Even though it has been established that a vegetarian diet can be healthy, many people prefer to eat meat and are willing to pay for it.

    2. Often, cattle or sheep can be raised to maturity on grass from pastureland that is unsuitable for any other kind of farming.

    3. If a grain diet is consumed with protein derived from non-animal sources, it can have nutritional value which is equal to that of a diet containing meat.

    4. Although prime farmland near metropolitan areas is being lost rapidly to suburban development, we could reverse this trend by choosing to live in areas that are already urban.

    5. Nutritionists agree that a diet composed solely of grain products is not adequate for human health.

    Answer: b

  22. With the continous increase that is happening in coffee beans, there will be a need to increase prices by the Coffee Shoppe. Due to this, its overall sales will decrease which will affect the profitability. The Coffee Shoppe can avoid a decrease in overall profitability only if its coffee sales do not decrease as even selling non-coffee products won't work out. Which one of the following statements follows logically from the statements above?

    1. If the Coffee Shoppe's overall profitability decreases, the price it pays for coffee beans might have increased continuosly.

    2. If the Coffee Shoppe's overall profitability decreases, either it will have begun selling noncoffee products or its coffee sales will have decreased.

    3. The Coffee Shoppe's overall profitability will decrease if the price it pays for coffee beans continues to increase.

    4. The price it pays for coffee beans cannot decrease without the Coffee Shoppe's overall profitability also decreasing.

    5. Either the price it pays for coffee beans will continue to increase or the Coffee Shoppe's coffee sales will increase.

    Answer: c

  23. Political candidates'speak with promises that will benefit others, will make people believe that they are the people with good intentions though they have selfish motives behind them. Hence the promises made by them are unreliable. Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the argument above?

    1. The argument presumes, without providing justification, that if a person's promise is not selfishly motivated then that promise is reliable.

    2. The argument presumes, without giving any justification, that promises made for selfish motives are never fulfilled.

    3. The argument confuses the effect of an action with its cause.

    4. The argument ignores the fact that a promise need not be unreliable just because the person who made it had an ulterior motive for doing so.

    5. The argument ignores the fact that a candidate who makes promises for selfish reasons may nonetheless be worthy of the office for which he or she is running.

    Answer: d

  24. Sociologist: Romantics are people who believe that people are not born with evil intensions, it is the circumstances and the evil institutions in which they live and deal with, which make them evil. However they forget that institutions are merely collections of people. Which one of the following principles, if valid, would most help to justify the sociologist's argument?

    1. People acting together in institutions can do more good or evil than can people acting individually.

    2. Institutions formed by people are inevitably imperfect.

    3. People should not be overly optimistic in their view of individual human beings.

    4. A society's institutions are the surest gauge of that society's values.

    5. The whole does not determine the properties of the things that compose it.

    Answer: e

  25. Some anthropologists claim that had the humans not developed the ability to adapt to various environmental changes, they wouldn't have survived. However, there is considerable evidence to prove this wrong as an instance of Australopithecus afarensis, a prehistoric species related to early humans thriving in a diverse array of environments is available. But they became extinct. The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument

    1. confuses a condition's being required for a given result to occur in one case with the condition's being sufficient for such a result to occur in a similar case

    2. takes for granted that if one species had a characteristic that happened to enable it to survive certain conditions, at least one related extinct species must have had the same characteristic

    3. generalizes, from the fact that one species with a certain characteristic survived certain conditions, that all related species with the same characteristic must have survived exactly the same conditions

    4. does not look upon the possibility that Australopithecus afarensis had one or more characteristics that lessened its chances of surviving prehistoric times

    5. does not look upon the possibility that, even if a condition caused a result to occur in one case, it was not necessary to cause the result to occur in a similar case

    Answer: a