Praxis II Middle School content knowledge Exam by ETS

The exam is aimed for those individuals who wants to teach all subjects to middle school students. Two hours will be provided, to complete 120 multiple choice questions. A non-programmable calculator may be used for this exam. There will be 30 questions pertaining to science, 30 pertaining to history and social studies, 30 pertaining to mathematics and 30 pertaining to literature and language studies.

Science: This section will focus on your ability to formulate and test hypotheses, design experiments, apply basic scientific concepts, identify problems, evaluate and analyze data, use scientific instruments and utilize practical and theoretical models. Physical science, geosciences and biology will be covered in this section.

The physical science questions covers topics: Nuclear chemistry, relativity, radioactivity, fusion, fission, physics, sound production, mirrors, lenses, electromagnetic spectrum, magnetism, circuits, current, static electricity, heat, energy transformation, energy sources, Newton's law of motion, conservation laws, mass, weights, gravity; periodic, circular, projectile, and straight-line motion, chemical bonding, catalysts, acids and bases, chemical reactions, reduction, oxidation, kinetics theory, and the physical and chemical properties of matter. Questions under physical sciences will comprise 33 − 34% of the science grade.

Geosciences: Oceanography, geological processes, physical processes, biological processes and chemical processes, meteorology, weather, climate, atmospheric composition, movement of the atmosphere, earth life forms, land forms, internal processes, the earth's composition, galaxies, planets, stars and the solar system. Questions under geosciences will comprise 33 − 34% of the science grade.

Biology: Principles of heredity, function of organ systems, life forms and their structures, genes and their functions, energy sources, cellular function and organelles, and other important molecules and will comprise 33 − 34% of the science grade.

History and Social Studies: This section will focus on your knowledge of social science and significant events in history. Critical thinking skills will be required to complete this section.

Questions pertaining to social studies will cover sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, government, and politics. The anthropology and sociology questions will cover cultural change, social organization, human culture, and research methods in the fields of sociology and anthropology. The anthropology and sociology questions will comprise 20% of the social studies grade. The economics section of the exam will cover basic economic concepts, and the government's role with the American economy. The economics questions will comprise 25% of the social studies grade for this exam. The geography questions will cover regional, economic, political, cultural and physical geography. Globe and map reading skills will also be tested in this section of the exam. This section of the exam will comprise 35% of the social studies grade. Questions pertaining to government and politics will cover the United States political system, political theories and political concepts. This section of the exam will comprise 20% of your grade in the social studies section.

Hisotory includes world history and American history. American history questions will cover the causes and consequences of World Wars I and II, the industrialization of America, the cause and consequences of the Civil War, the American Revolution, European colonization, European exploration, and Native American civilizations. The American history questions will comprise 50% of the grade in the history section. World history questions will cover 20th-century conflicts and ideologies, imperialism, nationalism, Islamic civilization, the expansion of Europe, Sahara cultures and kingdoms, Indian and Chinese empires, feudalism in Europe and Japan, the development of early and classical civilizations, and development of world religions. The world history questions will comprise 45% of the grade in the history section.

Mathematics: This section will focus on your knowledge of probability and statistics, the real number system, number subsystems, number theory, algebraic concepts, measurement, geometry, numeration and number sense. You may use four function calculator for the section of the exam. Questions pertaining to probability and statistics will test your ability to solve basic problems, recognize invalid and valid inferences, understand the interpretation and presentation of data in various forms, and make predictions involving statistics and probability. The probability and statistics section of the test will comprise 15% of your grade in the mathematics portion of the exam. Questions in the real number system and number subsystems section of the exam will test your knowledge of alternate and standard algorithms and solving real world situational problems. The real number system and subsystems questions will comprise 20% of your grade in the mathematics section. Questions pertaining to number theory will test your ability to understand composite and prime numbers, divisibility rules, set theory, greatest common divisor; least, and most common multiple and solve mathematical problems. The number theory, questions will comprise 10% of your grade in the mathematics section. Questions pertaining to algebraic concepts will test your ability to describe patterns by identifying a formula, and apply and recognize algebraic properties and concepts. The algebraic concept questions will comprise 10% of your grade in the mathematics section of the exam. Questions pertaining to measurement will test your knowledge of parameter, area, volume, mass, weights, temperature, time, and angle measurements in the metric and English system. The measurement questions will comprise 5% of your grade in the mathematics section of the exam. Questions pertaining to geometry will test your knowledge of polygons, angle measurements, congruence, perpendicularity, parallelism, and drawing inferences based on these concepts. Your knowledge of two and three dimensional objects will also be tested. Questions in the geometry section of the exam will comprise 20% of your grade in the mathematics section. Questions pertaining to number sense and numeration will test your knowledge of whole numbers, fractions, decimals, place value, ordinal numbers, cardinal numbers, problem solving and number concepts. Questions in the number sense and numeration, section of the exam will comprise 20% of your mathematics section grade.

Literature and Language: Includes oral and written communication, literature and language. You will be required to apply language arts principles in diverse context, and utilize your critical thinking skills for this portion of the exam. Questions pertaining to oral and written communication will cover the interpretation of written research reports, retrieval of information from print and non print materials and, application of communication skills for the analysis of written text. Your ability to analyze oral discourse, exposition, rhetoric, conventions of narration, and argumentation and reflection will also be tested in this section. Questions in the oral and written communication section includes 35% of your final grade in the literature and language section. In the language and linguistics section of the exam your knowledge of language integration across disciplines, linguistic analysis of various text, cultural and historical influences on standard American English, and the stages of language development will be tested. Questions in the language and linguistics section will comprise 30% of your grade in the literature and language section. In the literature, relation between social history and literature, literary conventions and assumptions, literary terminology, and conventions will be tested. Includes understanding of various approaches to reading, and the interpretation of literature with 35% of your grade in the language and literature section.