Competitive Exams: Revision Terminology Part 1

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  • Transition zone between adjacent biome – Eco tone.

  • In ecosystem one species Dominates & other excludes = Gause’s principle

  • Most productive & Biodiversity = coral reef.

  • Intertidal zone – Cladophora, Polysiphonia, Dictyota, Ulva, focus.

  • Carrying capacity – upper asymptote

  • Chemotaxonomy – used to study plant relationships

  • Colpidium – indicates degree of pollution in water

  • Infective stage of taenia solium- cysticercosis

  • Extinct primitive arthropods – trilobites

  • Heterothallism – prevent interbreeding

  • Johnston’s organ – antenna of mosquito

  • On gills fertile layer bearing basidia = Hymenium

  • Ascospore = endogenous

  • Basidiospore = exogenous

  • Norin – 10 – Japan – dwarf gene of wheat.

  • Dee geo woo gen – Taiwan – dwarf gene of rice.

  • Ordovician period – age of invertebrates/age of giant Mollusca.

  • Devonian period – age of fishes.

  • Carboniferous period – age of amphibians

  • Jurassic period - age of reptiles

  • Holocene epoch – age of man

  • Inheritance of acquired character = Lamarck. (France)

  • Natural selection = Darwin coworker – Wallace (by Malthus essay on popl)

  • Survival of fittest – spencer

  • Neo Darwinism = mutation germplasm DNA+ natural selection

  • Ancon sheep – short & curved legs – mutation – in Seth wright farmer in Massachusetts America

  • Evolution of new species -> geographic isolation

  • Evolutionary divergence -> reproductive isolation

  • People with common gene pool -> demes -> species

  • Sympatric Speciation = Reproduction isolation

  • Allopatric Speciation = Geographical isolation

  • Dollo Law – evolution irreversible

  • Copi’s Law - Evolution size increment

  • Bergman Law – Warm-blooded animal large in northern & cold regions.

  • Allen’s Law – Cold animal have small ears & tails

  • Gause Law/ Competitive exclusive principle – 2 species of same ecological requirement cannot continue to occupy same habitat

  • Gloger’s Rule – Warm blooded live in warm & moisture develop more melanin pigment.

  • Jordan’s rule – fisher of low temperature (cold atmosphere) – more vertebrae pressure

  • Hibernation = winter sleep

  • Aestivation = summer sleep

  • BGA endospore = bacocyte

  • PSI – inner surface of thylakoid – P700 – Ferrodoxin

  • PSII – outer surface of thylakoid – P680 – Granna

  • Chl. a – C55H72O5N4Mg – CH3 group

  • Chl. b – C55H70O6N4Mg – CH0 group

  • Lichens are sensitive to SO2

  • Burning plastics – polychlorinated Biphenyls

  • Aldehyde – irritate gastrointestinal & respiration tract

  • Nitrogen oxide – photochemical & respiration tract

  • O3 – harden rubber, destroy chlorenchyma

  • MIC gas at bhopal in union carbide factory manufacturing Sevin phosgene2 gas

  • CO used by ficus verigata, Phaseolus Vulgaris, Coleus Blumeri.

  • NO2 used by Pinus, Juniperus, Quercus, vitis

  • Putrescibility – decay & decomposition of organic matter due to bacteria.

  • Laundry detergents contain phosphate

  • India – biggest sea good exporter

  • Minamata victims – numbness of limbs, lips, tongue.

  • Tidal power station = France

  • Algin = Sargassum & Turbinaria

  • Non leguminous plant fixing N2 = Casaurina, Almus, Hippophae

  • Texture of soil => (1) water holding capacity (2) aeration

  • Earth is an open system for energy (close for material)

  • Halophyte – Salsola & triple

  • Cross primary productivity – Rate of organic matter by producers per unit time & area.

  • Net primary productivity – rate of organic matter built up in bodies per unit time & area

  • Secondary productivity – increment in biomass in heterotrophs.

  • Photosynthesis cyclic – Red – O2 not evolved.

  • Non-Photosynthesis cyclic – Red/Blue - O2 evolved.

  • LDH = Lactate dehydrogenase 5 forms isoenzymes (same action difference structure)

  • Enteric group – facultative aerobic bacteria

  • E.g. E.coli in water indicates contamination by sewage

  • Archaebactria – Branched chain lipids.

  • Taxonomy – identification, to nomenclature & classification of organisms

  • Copeland – 4 Kingdom Classification.

  • Whittaker – 5 Kingdom Classification

  • Amoeboid stage of slime mould = plasmodium devoid of cell wall

  • Total stem parasite – Cuscuta

  • Total root parasite – Orobanche

  • Partial root parasite – Santalum

  • Partial stem parasite – Loranthus, Viscum

  • Narcotics – Suppress CNS

  • Stimulants – increase CNS

  • Cornea – No Blood supply

  • CNS Stimulant = Amphetamines

  • CNS depressant = Barbiturates

  • Artificial pace maker in right Ventricle

  • 1st open heart surgery – 1953

  • 1st pesticide by man = Rotenone

  • Sporeine = Bio insecticide

  • Artificial Kidney = Passive filtration process

  • World war II = organophosphate Never gas inhibit cholinesterase

  • Agent orange is ausein derivative used by USA Vietnam

  • Rotenone – roots of Devris elliptica

  • Pyrethrum – inflorescence of chrysanthemum cinerariifoliun

  • Producers = Transducers

  • Ecosystem = integrated of system of living & nonliving things

  • Color changes = Metachrosis e.g. Chameleon & Hyla

  • Proteus arguinus (cave salamander) = eyeless

  • Sharks & cattle are color – blind.

  • Light intensity measured by lux meter or photometer

  • Tanning – synthesis of melanin in chromatophore

  • LDP = Radish spinach, henbane, sugar beet, oat, baray, wheat

  • SDP = Xanthium, chrysanthemum, Cannabis, Rice, sugarcane, Soybean

  • SLDP – wheat nice

  • LSDP – Bryophyllum

  • Day neutral = cotton, Tobacco, Potato, maize, cucumber

  • Daily response of light condition circadian rhythms.

  • Long day animal – Turkey, starling

  • Short day animal – sheep, goat, deer

  • Day neutral animal – guinea pig, ground squirrel

  • Regulate species of locomotion by light photo kinesis

  • Nyctinasty – flower of Portulaca & leaves of Albizia

  • Photonasty – Oxalis.

  • Thigmonasty – Drosera.

  • Seismonasty – lead of mimosa pudica

  • Orientation during locomotion in response -> photo taxis

  • Fecundity = reproductive capacity

  • Unidirectional trees – flag trees

  • Shivering – body temp increases

  • Perspiration/Panting – body temperature decreases

  • Snails – Calcium content

  • Insectivores – N2 deficient soil

  • Fresh water fish – large glomeruli & Expel large amount of hypotonic urine

  • Marine water fish – gills extract salts from seawater by active transport.

  • Migration – Bison, Caribou (mammals), Anguilla, salmon (fish), Arctic tes, siberion Crane, American golden plover (Birds)

  • Stenohaline – withstand only freshwater/ sea water

  • euryhaline – withstand difference concentrations of soil & water

  • Pedogenesis – formation of soil

  • Actinomycetes -> Streptomycin

  • Group of individuals belonging to a trophic level which consume a common resource base in similar fashion = Guild (nectar feeding, grazing, browsing, frugivorous animals).

  • Bioenergetics = Phillip’s.

  • Net production = gross production – respiration

  • Pyramid of energy – upright

  • Pyramid of no energy – upright (inverted (tree ecosystem)).

  • Hila ilisha (Indian shad) can live in both fresh & marine water

  • Pyramid of biomass – Aquatic inverted