Competitive Exams: Revision Terminology Part 21

  1. Man – 23 pair chromosome – 22 pair = autosomes.

  2. Man – 23 pair chromosome – 1 pair = sex / all some / heterosome (Me. Clung)

  3. In some extra chromosome are found in addition to present No = supernumerary / accessory/ B – Chromosome

  4. Lamp brush chromosome – Oocytes – flemming, prolonged diplotene stage of prophase I

  5. Lamp brush chromosome – axis

  6. Lamp brush chromosome – chromo mere – tightly coiled

  7. Lamp brush chromosome – loops – rich in DNA, RNA & protein, lateral

  8. Chromomere – coiled, beaded (of polytene respiratory for banding pattern)

  9. Chromocenter – heterochromatic regions near centromere (in polytene they appear as attached together)

  10. Knobs – Spherical heterochromatin, which may reach size of chromosome itself.

  11. Cycas – stem unbranched, male gamete (motile) two cotyledons, pinnately compound leaf, manoxylic wood, megasporophyll loosely arranged, palm like, simple polyembrony.

  12. Pinus – Branched more cotyledons, simple leaf, pycnoxylic wood, tail woody perennial dimorphic branches, foliage leaf – like needle, cleavage polyembroyony, male – non motile.

  13. Gymnosperm – naked seed plant, overliferous scales arranged in cones.

  14. Gymnosperm xylem vessels absent (most common)

  15. Gymnosperm phloem lacks Companion cells

  16. Leaf – sunken stomata, thick cuticle

  17. Lateral translocation of food by transfusion tissues

  18. Mega & microsporophyll in cones / strobili

  19. Megasporophyll –> orthotropous unitegmic –> female

  20. Microsporophyll –> eusporangiate –> male –> non motile

  21. Cones / strobili –> monosprorangiate (unisereal)

  22. Archegonium (single egg & 1 venter canal cell – neck canal are absent)

  23. Pollination by wind, siphonoganic fertilization, development – meroblastic, endosperm – haploid

  24. Araucania – thrive at low elevation & warm climates

  25. Ephedra – only scaly leave pr. (bisporangiate cones)

  26. Conifers – largest, heaviest & longest lived organism in world

  27. Embryo = endoscopic – polyembrony

  28. Ginkgo biloba – living fossil

  29. Cycas – sago palm, tropical, unbranched stem, endodermis & pericycle are single layered radial V.B, adventitious roots which are dichotomous branch stem= caudex

  30. Cycas beddomei = trimala hills of Andhra Pradesh

  31. Stem Cycas revolute – Japanese – ornamental

  32. Cells with sphaeraphides in cortere

  33. VB = collateral, endarch, open, eustele,

  34. Xylem of tracheid & phloem of sieve tubes.

  35. Vascular Bundle concentric rings due to vascular cambium rings

  36. Soft wood = manoxylic wood.

  37. Absence of lateral veins, presence of transfusion tissue

  38. metamorphosed leaflets.

  39. Epidermis = cuticle

  40. Hypodermis dioeciously = sclerenchyma, Vascular Bundle = inverted omega shaped – diplonelic

  41. Mesophyll = palisade + spongy

  42. Single layered tapetum – nourishment

  43. Male => microsporophyll, central axis, spirally + axis

  44. 4 microsporophyll arranged tetrahedrally

  45. Mature pollen grain has a depression colpus on one side & pollen grains appear boat shaped.

  46. Ovules mature in archegonia chamber opposite to pollen chamber.

  47. Cycas – biggest antherozoid & biggest ovule

  48. Fertilization = siphonogamous – Zooidogamy.

  49. Generative cell – stalk cell.

  50. Generative cell – Body cell – 2 spernatozoids (antherozoids) – top shaped, multicalited

  51. Megaspore = first cell of female gametophyte.

  52. Embryo – upper – Neustria

  53. Embryo – middle – suspensor

  54. Embryo – lower – embryonal

  55. Nucellus –> Perisperem

  56. Integument -> seed coat

  57. Female gametophyte –> endosperm

  58. Zygote –> embryo

  59. Ovule –> seed

  60. Cellularization is centripetal

  61. PINUS – female prothallus = endosperms

  62. PINUS – sporophyte dominant on gametophyte

  63. Seed = adaxial + endospermic

  64. Male cone – Cluster behind apical bud at base of new shoot

  65. Female cone – in axil leaf of top

  66. Pollen grain –> male prothallus -> antheridia cell -> generative + tube cell

  67. Megasporophyll -> lower bract

  68. Megasporophyll -> upper ovuliferous

  69. Female gametophyte – a solid mass of tissue within nacelles endosperm.

  70. Function of CoA is to activate acetyl group. (by higher energy sculpture bond)

  71. Glycolysis – only glyceraldehyde 3-p under goes further

  72. Glycolysis inhibited when ATP in sufficient amount – act as allosteric inhibitor of enzyme phosphor – fructokinase.

  73. Multieng complex – matrix of mitochondria

  74. Eng actinose has fe -> center