Competitive Exams: Revision Terminology Part 22

  • One pyruvic acid oxidize -> one ATP, four NADH, two CO2.

  • One pyruvic acid oxidize Krebs cycle = two pyruvic acid cycle.

  • ETS by KCN or CO:

  • CN form complex with cyt a3 – no e- so no proton gradient & no ATP produced

  • Glycolysis – 4 ATP formed, 2 ATP used, 2ATP net gainer

  • By direct phosphorylation = gain of 4 ATP in respiration

  • 10 NADH (2 Glycolysis & 8 Krebs cycle) = 30 ATP

  • 2 FADH2 in Krebs cycle = 4 ATP

  • So, Total 38 ATP

  • In eukaryotes two ATP expended in transport of two NADH so net gain = 36 ATP.

  • PPP – pentose phosphate pathway – cytoplasm – 5 – c sugar – 36 ATP = Waeburg Dickms Lipmann pathway.

  • Glyoxylate cycle in seeds, possess tissue rich in fat & converted to carbohydrates enzyme Present in glyoxysomes.

  • Compensation => Co2 released in respiration = Co2 fixed in photosynthesis

  • 180 gm of glucose -> 264 gm Co2 (complete oxidation)

  • 180 gm of glucose -> 92 gm C2H5OH (partial oxidation)

  • 180 gm of glucose -> 88 gm Co2 (anaerobic respiration)

  • 1 pyruvic acid oxidize -> 15 ATP.

  • Hg used in anaerobic respiration – not react with CO2.

  • X – Ketoglutaric acid = 1st dicarboxylic acid = both de hydrogenation & decarboxylation

  • ETS – on inner member of mitochondria

  • Fruits & seeds at low temperature – reduce rate of respiration

  • If leaf in sugar solution – respiration rate VNC.

  • Dinitrophenol – inhibit ATP synthesis

  • Oligomycin – inhibit oxidative phosphorylation

  • Anaerobic PastureEffect aerobic

  • in resp of ripening fruit – Climacteric factor

  • 19 glucose molecules are required to produce 38 ATP under anaerobic conditions by yeast cell

  • TCA = amphibole pathway

  • TCA catabolism of fat, carbohydrate

  • TCA anabolism of intermediates to synthesis macromolecules.

  • E. Coli – DNA polymerase I, II, III (I, II repair, and III replication)

  • Eukaryotes – DNA polymerase α,β,γ,δ,ϵ

  • Prokaryotes – only one origin of replication, UGA – tryptophan (yeast + mitochondria), all RAN single RAN polymerase

  • mRAN is simultaneously translated during transcription gene are continuous & collinear

  • mRAN – polycistronic

  • Eukaryotes – several origin of replication, UGA = stop signal, all RAN by polymerase, mRAN is processed & then transported genes of exon + intron. mRAN = monocistronic

  • Helicase –unwinds helix, topoisomerase – breaks DNA (e.g. DNA gyrase)

  • Short stretch of RAN = Primer formed on DNA template by enzyme Primase (stepping stone)

  • Lading strand 5 feet -> 3 feet – continuous

  • Lagging strand 3 feet –> 5 feet (but oka zaki fragment 5 feet -> 3 feet)- semi discontinuous replication

  • Exonuclease – engineering degrade nucleic acid from ends, if 3 feet -> 5 feet removed of 3 feet end (Called proof reading crediting)

  • Endonuclease – engineering degrade nucleic acid from between.

  • Frequency of wrong base – 3 : 10,00,000 in DNA replication reduced to 1:1 billion.

  • If 5 feet – 3 feet Exonuclease activity remove DNA damaged portion by external source

  • Single recessive gene – phenylketonuria, goitourous, Cretinism, albinism, alkaptonuria conidia exposed to X-rays increment change of mutation.

  • Garrod – one mutant gene – one metabolic block concept

  • Primitive code (Archetyped code) – 16 anticoden providing only is A.A.

  • Wobble Hypothesis – 3rd base is not imp – allows economy of no. of tRAN molecules.

  • Weissman – human leucocyte interferon gene (1 F N - α )

  • Most imp. Control over gene example occurs by control over transcription by regulatory genes.

  • Genes, which are inactive, have a tendency to bind to methyl Group.

  • DNA in Bacteria : Eukaryote = 1 :1000 (protein CAP (catabolic activator pathway) facilities felting of RAN polymerase & DNA to rate of transcription)

  • Antibiotic puromycin > Translation

  • Antibiotic actinomycin D > RaN synthesis in pro + eukaryote

  • RUBISCO – 16% of chloroplast protein, most abundant protein on earth stoma of chloroplast molecular weight = 557000

  • To protect own DNA from own restriction synthesis by bacteria only engineering bacteria adds CH3 group = modification

  • Exons are expressing

  • Introns removed off.

  • Peptide bond is catalyzed by 23 rRAN catalyze.

  • Peptidyl transfers rectangle do not consume high energy phosphate bard + bond, energy of the charged tRAN is converted into peptide bond

  • Fluorescence – isolated chlorophyll in pure form emits red color.

  • Cartonsome – Shield pigment protects the chlorophyll from photo oxidation

  • 1 quanta some = 200 – 240 chlorophyll molecules.