Competitive Exams: Revision Terminology Part 3

  • Accidental Discoveries – Serendipity (Structure of benzene, penicillin, Gravitation, Flower)

  • Transmission Electronic microscope => for internal structures, Scanning EM – surface of cells.

  • Axenic Culture – pure culture without contamination

  • In Vitro – study of plants outside body of glass tube

  • Protein – peptide bond

  • Polysaccharide - Glycoside bond

  • Nucleic acid – Phosphodiester bond

  • ATP = energy cheque for endergonic metabolic reaction

  • Fritz Lippmann = father of ATP cycle.

  • Atom -> molecule -> Compound -> Cell -> tissue -> organ ->Organ System -> organism -> population -> Community -> Ecosystem ->Biosphere

  • NACL = 0.9% of blood

  • Glucose = 0.1% of body wt 60-100 mg/100ml of blood

  • Protein = 12%

  • Fat = 3.5 %

  • Nucleic acid = 2%

  • ACTH = 39 Amino acid

  • Haemocyanin = 8200 AA

  • Energy Kinetics of living being = Bioenergetics

  • Second law of thermodynamics – states that in every real process the sum of the entropies of all participating bodies is increased.

  • Cockroaches & Ginkgo’s have shown very little change in millions of year.

  • Homeostatic – internal environment – Walther B- Cannor

  • Last body cells to die = Brain.

  • Thermostat = Hypothalamus.

  • Amoeba, Bacteria, Paramecium = Immortal

  • Art of keeping tissues & organs alive outside body of animal = Sydney Ringer

  • Bushmen of Kalahari = use fingers & Thumb to indicate hunting

  • Frog – tongue bifid – teeth on upper jaw

  • Toad – teeth absent

  • Mimicry – Phylum – leaf insects look as leaf

  • Kallima – dead leaf butterfly

  • RNA = genetic material in TMV

  • Height blooming flowers – colorless but highly Scented & open at night

  • Flying frog – Rhacophorus – digits of limb & hind limb webbed for gliding

    • Flying frog – pteropus – skinfold patagia for gliding

    • Selaginella leptophylla (Clubmoss) s. bryopsis, myrothamnus, Craterostigma – survive

  • Desiccation & dead when dry & revive in water = RESURRECTION PLANTS.

  • Melvin – Calvin produced A.A. & sugar by H2O, H2, NH3, CH4

  • 1st oxygenic & aerobic photoautotrophs = Cyanobacteria

  • Homologous organs -> pentadactyl plan (5- digits)

  • Polio = Smallest animal virus

  • Haeckel = Biogenetic law – ontogeny repeats phylogeny

  • Leucocytes = lack cell wall

  • RER = protein synthesis

  • SER = steroid synthesis

  • Silent valley of Kerala = Cicadas extinction

  • Hardest structure of human body = enamel

  • Walrus – upper canines

  • Maximum diversity = tropical rain forest

  • Diastrophism = vertically upward movement of solid part of earth e.g. Himalaya on Tethys

  • Autecology – between same individuals Schroder & Kirchner

  • Synecology – Between different individuals Schroder & Kirchner

  • Term ecosystem = AG tensely.

  • 10% law of energy flow – Lindeman

  • Plant with largest fruit – Lodoicea maldivica – double coconut – 6 kg