Competitive Exams: Revision Terminology Part 5

  • 2 major factors that cell size are rate of physical diffusion of nutrient & O2 and Regulatory activities of nucleus to maintain nucleo cytoplasmic ratio

  • Bioenergetics – transformation & use of energy by living cells.

  • Centrioles & ribosomes – no membranous organelles.

  • Cu2+ converts to Cu+ (in presence of free aldehydes) = Reducing sugar – basis of benedict’s

  • Resolving power – ability to distinguish to closely related pats as separate pats

  • Resolving power human eye – 10 um.

  • Robert Hooke- cell – mathematician / physicist – micrographia – “Of the Schematsme or texture of cork & cells & Pores of some other such forthy bodies” – separation of cells = diaphragm Robert Brown – nucleus.

  • Cell theory – MJ Schlieden & Theodor Schwann – all living things made of cells, arise from pre-existing cells, fundamentally similar, function as whole unit.

  • Chromosome – primary seen by Hofmeister (pollen mother cell of transdescantia).

  • Chromosome – term by waldeyer

  • Plant cell – has cell wall, central large, vacuole, absence of centrosome.

  • Mitochondria – primary seen in Nymphaea.

  • Autoplast = Chloroplast.

  • Glucose = D isomer

  • Amino acid = L isomer

  • Rudolf Virchow – cell arise from preexisting cells.

  • Organic compounds have specific shape & dimensions.

  • Non polar substance are immiscible with water = Hydrophobic

  • Monosaccharides – CnH2nOn triose glyceraldehyde & dihydroxyacetone.

  • Erthyose – synthesis of lignin & anthocyanin Pigments.

  • Fructose – fruits = levalose – sweetest

  • Mannitol – alcohol of mannose – brown algae.

  • Agar – 2 = Graciliara ( galactose)

  • Glucose +NH2 group = Glucosamine -> chitin

  • Fruit wall high percentages of pectin ripening pectin -> sugar so sweetening occurs.

  • Starch – blue with iodine

  • Glycogen – red violet with iodine

  • Hemicellulose = D xylose – in dates – phoenix

  • Commonest lipid = triglycerides

  • Steroid & terpenes = complex lipids

  • Lignin – polymer of aromatic alcohol – secondary cell wall esp. woody tissues menthol & camphor

  • Fatty substances in cell wall - transipiration & provide protection

  • Diorgenin = antifertility pills – Dioscorea.

  • Infants need histidine

  • Imino group A.A = proline, hydroxyproline

  • Neutral AA = alanine, glycine, valine

  • Neutral AA = alanine, glycine simplest AA, nor-carbon. (contain heme)

    • Tryptophan forms nictotinamide & indole acetic acid

    • Proteins

      • Primary structure – most stable, strong covalent bond, specificity

      • Secondary structure – H2 bonds – α – helical (keration) β – pleated (silk)

      • Tertiary structure – poly peptide bends & folds as globular – Functional conformation ionic, covalent & H2 bond, S-S covalent bond stable

      • Quaternary structure – H2, ionic & hydrophobic bonds

    • Protein size - less soluble & more heat coagulable

    • 1st class protein – animal

    • 2nd class protein – vegetable (lack essential AA)

    • World’s most commonest protein = RUBISCO

    • Hordein = Barlley

    • Gliadin/glutenin = wheat

    • Zeatin = maize

    • Orgzanin = Rice

    • Product of Biological origin = odd no. of C.

    • Product of abiological origin = equal odd & even C atoms.

    • Protein quality

      • Digestibility Coefficient = percentage indigested protein absorbed in blood aster.

      • Biological value = percentage of N2 retained from out of N2 absorbed

      • Protein efficiency ratio – gain in wt/protein Consumed.

      • Net protein utilization = DigestibilitycoefficientXBio.Value100