Competitive Exams: Climate

The climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. There are four seasons in India:

  1. Winter season (December-February)

  2. Hot weather season, Summer (March-May)

  3. Rainy season, south-western monsoon period (June-September)

  4. Post monsoon period, known as northeast monsoon period in the south peninsula (October-December). In India rainfall is irregular and un-uniform. It varies from place-to-place and year-to-year. However, there are four broad climatic regions based on rainfall. Practically the whole of Assam and its neighbourhood, the Western Ghats and the adjoining coastal strip and parts of the Himalaya< are areas of very heavy rainfall with more than 2000 mm of annual rainfall. Some places in the Khasi and Jaintia hills of Meghalaya receive the heaviest rainfall in the world. Cherranpunji gets 11419 mm of annual rainfall, the highest in the country. In contrast, Rajasthan, Kutch and the high Ladakh plateau of Kashmir extending westward to Giligit are regions of low precipitation. They get rainfall between 100 to 500 mm in a year. Between these areas at the extreme ends of the rainfall range, are two areas of moderately high and low rainfall ranging from 100 to 200 mm and 500 to 1000 mm. The former consists of a broad beIt in the eastern part of the peninsula merging northward with the north Indian plains. The latter run from the Punjab plains across the Vil1dhya mountains into the western part of the Deccan, extending further to east Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.