Human Cloning

“All Progress Is Based Upon Innate Desire Of Every Organism To Live Beyond Its Means” Remarks Sameul Butler In His Publication ‘Notebooks’ This Desire For Progress Has Changed The Present Scientific Scenario And Cloning Has Became A Part Of It. The World Cloning Itself Includes A Major Aspect Of Scientific Breakthrough. It Is Now A Standard Bio-Technological Tool For Growing Superior Living Organisms Either Plants Or Animals Of Uniform Quality In Large Number From Parental Cells.

A clone is defined as an organism which is derived from a single parent by sexual means. It resembles the parent both genetically and physically. This concept was first applied to horticulture. The word ‘clone’ is derived from greek word klon meaning twig. Cloning can be of two types-the gene cloning and organism cloning. The first experimental cloning of animal was done in 1952. It was after 277 attempts of which only 29 udder cells became embryo, which were implanted in 13 ewes and out of that only one could be successful. The clone was named DOLLY and was developed by Dr. Ian Wilmut of Roslin institute Edinburgh.

And then onwards the scientist started working for Human clone. It arose a worldwide uproar against cloning and scientists working on it had to face a lot of criticism and authority suppression. The Chicago physicist Richard seed proposed plans for human cloning within two years. He proposes to remove DNA from a women's egg replace it with genetic material from a person Being cloned. developed the embryo in Laboratory and then grow the same in the woman's womb. A survey conducted in USA predicts that only 6% of the citizens favor it.

UNESCO has declared that human cloning is contrary to human dignity. The bioethics advisory committee of the USA demanded a ben on it. Bill Clinton, the Ex-president of USA imposed a total ban on It and pope declared that each human being has a right to unique human genome. Members of different parliaments have introduced bills in this connection. They are still pending in the USA and European unions. Some of these stipulate that cloning can be performed but only at the laboratory level and the embryo should not be implanted in the mother's womb. UK is one of the few countries that explicitly forbids human cloning though permitting research on human embryo through a license. Under UK's 1990 Human fertilization and embryology act, creation of clone babies is forbidden but creation of human embryo upto 14 days old could be allowed for research and development. Techniques used for cloning, nuclear transfer, In effect reprograms adult cells so that they are embryonic and've potential to grow into any type of tissue. In this way stem cells are made and are called grandmothers of cell lines. Their nervous tissue can be used to treat Alzehemir and Parkison's Disease, skins for the treatment of burns and muscle tissues for heart patients. The famous scientist john Gearheart discovered a way to turn these stem cells to 110 kinds of cells. Recently an Indian Scientist B. G. Matapurkar has won a US patent for his revolution In regenerative surgery and Dr. Joseph of Rambal medical center have developed cardiomyocytes and Dr. Karl Skorecki of same institute has demonstrated the stem cells can be used to produce human Insulin. Indian has also launched 3 stem cells pilot projects with rupees 10 to 20 Million seed money. National center for biological sciences banglore and reliance like sciences, Bombay are among the ten organizations Eligible for US assistance. In recent news Dr. Severino Antinoro, University of Roma, prof. Micheal Zavos, andrology institute, Kentucky and brigittie boisslier, director clonaids, Bahamas have gone forward with the intention to allow over 70 million infertile man to have children. Dr. Antinoro who has distinction of helping a 62 years old woman have a child hopes to start his experiments on a ship in international waters. This Decision comes on wake of US Ban on Human cloning on 8th August 2001.

Going through all these developments regarding it has becomes debatable Issue.

Advantages As Thought by the scientists

  1. In case of infertile persons it occurs as a boon as they can give their own cells to give birth to a clone. A company valiant ventures limited announces a service called clon aid at a cost of as low as US $2 00000 and another facility to insure a clone for US $50, 000 which would provide storage of cells from a living child to create a clone in case of first's death.

  2. Cloning is a way to improve human races.

  3. Cloning can be useful to study genetic Diseases.

  4. It can be used in human beings for treatment of diseased parts.

  5. It can be used as a technique to recover some one loved who is no more amidsts them.

Disadvantages as thought by skeptics

  1. it is a departure from natural instincts and stones on the foundation of artificial are temporary.

  2. It may result in ethnic cleansing as it may be used to propogate one species at the cost of others.

  3. It may lead to unfolding of man's commercial potentials.

  4. It may alter the individuality of a person. It is rightly said ‘meeting people unlike oneself doesn't enlarge one's outlook, it only confirms one's idea that one is unique’

  5. it may be pose a thread to human civilization and each concept of it will deliberately change.

  6. It may be used by unscrupulous people for selfish motives.

Thus it can be concluded that no view can be absolute. It is not correct to overemphasize the ethical issues and completely ignore the benefits of new technologies. If one remains attached to moral thoughts and social beliefs, the progress is ought to be at the mark of stillness. The question is should one stop researches associated with it rather than adhering to the abuses of cloning. In this era of development the researches should not be hindered on the other hand a legislation to prevent the unscrupulous use of this technology should not be taken into account. Govt. Should Ensure that power of this technology should not be used for selfish motives. If the ill effects of this technology are controlled, the aim of this research will certainly be proved to be a boon as it would usher better quality of life.

‘After all there is but one race-Humanity’ By George Moore