Competitive Exams: Human Endocrine Glands





  • Releasing and inhibiting hormones and factors
  • Posterior pituitary hormones produced here

Control of another pituitary hormones

Posterior pituitary gland

  • Receives hormones from hypothalamus no hormones synthesised here
  • stores and secretes the following:
  • Oxytocin
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (vasopressin)
  • Ejection of milk from mammary gland, contraction of uterus during birth
  • Reduction of urine secretion by kidney

Anterior pituitary gland

  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Luteinising hormone (LH)
  • Prolactin
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH or corticotrophin)
  • Growth hormone (GH)
  • In male, stimulate spermatogenesis
  • In female, growth of ovarian follicles
  • In male testosterone secretion
  • In female secretion of oestrogen and progesterone, ovulation and maintenance of corpus luteum
  • Stimulates milk production and secretion
  • Synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones growth of thyroid glands.
  • Synthesis and secretion of adrenal cortex hormones growth of gland
  • Protein synthesis, growth, especially of bone of limbs

Parathyroid gland


  • Increases blood calcium level
  • Decreases blood phosphate level

Thyroid gland

  • Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)
  • Calcitonin
  • Regulation of basal metabolic rate, growth and development
  • Decreases blood calcium level

Adrenal cortex

  • Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
  • Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
  • Protein breakdown, glucose/glycogen synthesis, adaptation to stress, anti-inflammatory/allergy effects
  • Na + retention in kidney, Na + and K + ratios in extracellular and intracellular fluids, raises blood pressure

Adrenal medulla

  • Adrenaline (epinephrine)
  • Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
  • Increase rate and force of heartbeat, constriction of skin and gut capillaries
  • Dilation of arterioles of heart and skeletal muscles, raising blood glucose level
  • General constriction of small arteries, raising of blood pressure

Islets of Langerhans

  • Insulin (beta cells)
  • Glucagon (alpha cells)
  • Decreases blood glucose level, increases glucose and amino acid uptake and utilisation by cells
  • Increases blood glucose level, breakdown of glucogen to glucose in liver
  • stomach
  • Duodenum
  • Gastrin
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin (Pancreozymin)
  • Secretion of gastric juices
  • Secretion of pancreatic juice
  • Inhibits gastric secretion
  • Emptying of gall bladder and release of pancreatic juice in to duodenum
  • Kidney
  • Ovary
  • Renin
  • Oestrogens (17 Beta-oestradiol)
  • Progesterone
  • Conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin
  • Female secondary sex characteristics, oestrous cycle
  • Gestation, inhibition of ovulation

Corpus luteum

  • Progesterone and oestrogen
  • Progesterone ans oestrogen
  • Growth and development of uterus
  • Foetal development


  • Chorionic gonadotrophin
  • Human placental lactogen
  • Maintenance of corpus luteum
  • Stimulates mammary growth



Male secondary sexual characteristics