Competitive Exams: Milestones in Medical Science

SNo

Discovery/Invention

Year

Discoverer/Inventor

Country

1

Adrenaline

1894

Schafer and Oliver

Britain

2

Anesthesia, Local

1885

Koller

Austria

3

Anesthesia, Spinal

1898

Bier

Germany

4

Anti-toxins (Science of Immunity)

1890

Behring and Kitasato

Germany, Japan

5

Aspirin

1889

Dreser

Germany

6

Ayurveda

2000 − 1000 BC

Shustru

India

7

Bacteria

1683

Leeuwenhock

Netherlands

8

Bacteriology

1872

Ferdinand Cohn

Germany

9

Biochemistry

1648

Jan Baptista Van Helmont

Belgium

10

Blood Plasma storage (Blood bank)

1940

Drew

USA

11

Blood Transfusion

1625

Jean-Baptiste Denys

France

12

Cardiac Pacemaker

1932

A. S Hyman

USA

13

CAT Scanner

1968

Godfrey Hounsfield

Britain

14

Chemotherapy

1493 − 1541

Paracelsus

Switzerland

15

Chloroform as anaesthetic

1847

James Simpson

Britain

16

Chloromycetin

1947

Burkholder

USA

17

Cholera T. B germs

1877

Robert Koch

Germany

18

Circulation of blood

1628

William Harvey

Britain

19

Cryo-Surgery

1953

Henry Swan

USA

20

Diphtheria germs

1883 − 84

Klebs and Loffler

Germany

21

Electro-Cardiograph

1903

Willem Einthoven

Netherlands

22

Electro-encephalogram

1929

Hand Berger

Germany

23

Embryology

1792 − 1896

Kari Ernest Van Baer

Estonia

24

Endocrinology

1902

Bayliss and Starling

Britain

25

First Test Tube Baby

1978

Steptoe and Edwards

Britain

26

Gene Therapy on humans

1980

Martin Clive

USA

27

Genes associated with cancer

1982

Robert Weinberg and others

USA

28

Heart Transplant Surgery

1967

Christian Barnard

S. Africa

29

Histology

1771 − 1802

Marie Bichat

France

30

Hypodermic syringe

1853

Alexander wood

Britain

31

Kidney Machine

1944

Kolf

Netherlands

32

Leprosy Bacillus

1873

Hansen

Norway

33

LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide)

1943

Hoffman

Switzerland

34

Malaria Germs

1880

Laveran

France

35

Morphine

1805

Friderich Sertumer

Germany

36

Neurology

1758 − 1828

Franz Joseph Gall

Germany

37

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

1971

Raymond Damadian

USA

38

Open Heart Surgery

1953

Walton Lillehel

USA

39

Oral Contraceptive Pills

1955

Gregory Pincus, Rock

USA

40

Penicillin

1928

Alexander Fleming

Britain

41

Physiology

1757 − 66

Albrecht Von Haller

Switzerland

42

Positron emission Tomography

1978

Louis Sokoloff

USA

43

Rabies Vaccine

1860

Louis Pasteur

France

44

Recombinant-DNA technology

1972 − 73

Paul Berg, H. W. Boyer, S Cohen

USA

45

Reserpine

1949

Jal Vakil

India

46

Rh-factor

1940

Karl Landsteiner

USA

47

Serology

1884 − 1915

Paul Ehrlich

Germany

48

Sex hormones

1910

Eugen Steinach

Australia

49

Small Pox eradicated

1980

W. H. O Declaration

UN

50

Stethoscope

1819

Rene Laennec

France

51

Streptomycin

1944

Selman Waksmann

USA

52

Synthetic Antigens

1917

Landsteiner

USA

53

Terramycin

1950

Finlay and Others

USA

54

Thyroxin

1919

Edward Calvin-Kendall

USA

55

Typhus Vaccine

1909

J. Nicolle

France

56

Vaccination

1796

Edward Jenner

Britain

57

Vaccine, Measles

1963

Enders

USA

58

Vaccine, Meningitis

1987

Gardon, et al. Connaught Lab

USA

59

Vaccine, Polio

1954

Jonas Salk

USA

60

Vaccine, Polio-orai

1960

Albert Sabin

USA

61

Vaccine, Rabies

1885

Louis Pasteur

France

62

Vaccine, Smallpox

1776

Jenner

Britain

63

Virology

1892

Ivanovski and Bajernick

USSR, Netherlands

64

Vitamin A

1913

Mc Collum and M. Davis

USA

65

Vitamin B1

1936

Minot and Murphy

USA

66

Vitamin C

1919

Froelich Holst

Norway

67

Vitamin D

1925

Mc Collum

USA

68

Vitamin K

1938

Doisy Dam

USA

69

Western Scientific Therapy

460 − 370 BC

Hippocrates

Greece

70

Yoga

200 − 100 BC

Patanjali

India