Competitive Exams: National Movement of India 1920 − 1930

National Movement of India: 1920 to 1930

Chauri Chaura Incident (1922)

  • A mob of people at Chauri Chaura (near Gorakhpur) clashed with police and burnt 22 policemen on February 5, 1922.

  • This compelled Gandhiji to withdraw the Non Cooperation movement on Feb. 12, 1922.

Simon Commission (1927)

  • Constituted under John Simon, to review the political situation in India and to introduce further reforms and extension of parliamentary democracy.

  • Indian leaders opposed the commission, as there were no Indians in it.

  • The Government used brutal repression and police attacks to break the popular opposition. At Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was severely beaten in a lathi-charge. He succumbed to his injuries on Oct. 30, 1928.

Lahore Session (1929)

  • On Dec. 19, 1929 under the President ship of J. L. Nehru, the INC, at its Lahore Session, declared Poorna Swaraj (Complete independence) as its ultimate goal.

  • On Dec. 31, 1929, the newly adopted tri-colour flag was unfurled and an. 26, 1930 was fixed as the First Independence Day, was to be celebrated every year.

Revolutionary Activities

  • The first political murder of a European was committed in 1897 at Poona by the Chapekar brothers, Damodar and Balkishan. Their target was Mr. Rand, President of the Plague Commission, but Lt. Ayerst was accidentally shot.

  • In 1907, Madam Bhikaiji Cama, a Parsi revolutionary unfurled the flag of India at Stuttgart Congress (of Second international).

  • In 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla chaki threw a bomb on the carriage of kingford, the unpopular judge of Muzaffapur. Khudiram, Kanhaiyalal Dutt and Satyendranath Bose were hanged (Alipur Case).

  • In 1909, M L Dhingra shot dead Col. William Curzon Whyllie, the political advisor of India Office in London.

  • In 1912, Rasbihari Bose and Sachindra Nath Sanyal threw a bomb and Lord Hardinge at Delhi (Delhi Conspiracy Case).

  • In Oct, 1924, a meeting of revolutionaries from all parts of India was called at Kanpur. They setup Hindustan Socialist Republic Association/Army (HSRA).

  • They carried out a dacoity on the Kakori bound train on the Saharanpur-Lucknow railway line on Aug. 9, 1925.

  • Bhagat Singh, with his colleagues, shot dead Saunders (Asst. S. P. Of Lahore, who ordered lathi charge on Lala Lajpat Rai) on Dec. 17, 1928.

  • Then Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly on Apr 8, 1929. Thus, he, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged on March. 23, 1931 at Lahore Jall (Lahore Conspiracy Case) and their bodies cremated at Hussainiwala near Ferozepur.

  • In 1929 only Jatin Das died in Lahore jail after 63 days fast to protest against horrible conditions in jail.

  • Surya Sen, a revolutionary of Bengal, formed the Indian Republic Army in Bengal. In 1930, he masterminded the raid on Chittagong armoury. He was hanged in 1933.

  • In 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad shot himself at Alfred Park in Allahabad.

Dandi March (1930)

  • Also called the Salt Satyagraha.

  • Along with 78 followers, Gandhiji started his march from Sabarmati Ashram on March 12, 1930 for the small village Dandhi to break the salt law.

  • He reached the seashore on Apr. 6, 1930.

  • He picked a handful of salt and inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement.

First Round Table conference (1930)

  • It was the first conference arranged between the British and Indians as equals. It was held on Nov. 12, 1930 in London to discuss Simon commission.

  • Boycotted by INC, Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, Liberals and some others were there.