Competitive Exams: Hess's seafloor-spreadine model
In this paper Hess, drawing on Holmes's model of convective flow in the mantle, suggested that the mid-ocean ridges were the surface expressions of rising and diverging convective flow while trenches and Benioff zones with their associated island arcs marked descending limbs. At the ridge crests new oceanic crust would be generated and then carried away laterally to cool, subside, and finally be destroyed in the nearest trenches.
Supported and developed by Robert S. Dietz, J. Tuzo Wilson and Lynn R. Sykes, an American seismologist, showed that the motions deduced from earthquakes on transform faults conform to the directions of motion postulated by Wilson and are opposite those observed on a transform fault.
A magnetic survey of the eastern Pacific floor off the coast of Oregon and California had been published in 1961 by two geophysicists, Arthur D. Raff and Ronald G. Mason.