Competitive Exams: Temperate Zone/Climate

Between 30° 45° N and S There are three types of climates in it:

  1. Western margin or Mediterranean type: Regions: 30 − 40° N and S. In Europe: Spain, Portugal, Israel, Turkey, Southern France, Greece, Syria, Lebanon. In Africa: Morocco, North Algeria, Tunisia, Upper Libya, Upper Egypt. In N. America: Large parts of California. In S. America: Central Chile. In Australia: Adilade, Melbourne, Northern Island of New Zealand. Temperature: In summer 20 − 26° C and in winter 7 − 5° c Rainfall: 20 − 30 inches mainly in winters. Four important winds are Sirocco in Sahara, Santa Ana (S. California). Mistral and Bora in MediterraneanVegetation: Chapparel in California, Malleg Scrub in Australia. Maguis or Garigue in France. Macchia in Italy, Fymbosch in S. Africa, Mediterranean forest and shrub. Olive trees. Citrus Fruits, Evergreen Forest, Myrtle, Rosemary, Laurel, Holly. Madrona and Cork Oak

  2. Central Continental/Light summer/Temperate grassland/Steppe Type: Regions: North Coastal Africa Morocco, N. Algeria, Tunisia and North of Bengasia in Libya. Temperature: 65° F. Rainfall: Light Summer rain 25 − 75 cm. Vegetation: Steppe or Temperate Grasslands; Oaks of Spain, Eucalyptus.

  3. Eastern Margin/China Type/Gulf Type/Natal Type: Region: 25 − 40° N and 25 − 40° S; In Asia areas of North and Central China, S. Japan (islands Kyushu, Shikoku and portion of Honshu), Southern Korea. In N. America: South Eastern States of US. In S. America: South Paraguay, N. Argentina, Uruguay and S. Brazil. In Africa: East Central Coastal Regions, specially Natal area of S. Africa. In Australia: New South Wales and South Queensland. Temperature: It varies between 21° -27degree C in summer and between 5 − 2° C in winters. Rainfall: 75 − 125 cm. rainfall is heavier in summer (45 inches) than in winter. Vegetation: Warm and Wet forests (Deciduous), Pines, Beech, Oak, Magnohas, Camehas, Camphor, Eucalyptus, Mulberry, Mate, Walnuts, Bamboo.

  4. Temperate Grassland/Prairie Type: Region: 4050° N&S North America: Prairie; South America: Pampas (from Andes mountains to Atlantic Ocean), S Africa: Velds (Transvaal) Europe: Pustaz in Hungary; Asia: Steppe in Russia (S. W. Siberia and Mongolia) Australia: Downs (MurrayDarling Basin), Temperature: In summers 18 to 24° Gand in winters 4 to 2° C. Rainfall: In spring and early summer, 2565 cm. And of convectional type. Vegetation: Short grass. Tribes: Kirghiz in Central Asia, Red Indians (N. America), Hottentots (S. Africa).

Cool Temperate Zone

It is of four types:

  1. Western Margin/British Type/Marine West Coast: Region: 40° -60 degree N & S; Europe: (W France, Belgium, West Germany, Denmark, Luxemburg, Netherlands, British Isles, S Norway upto Baltic Sea) N America: (W Canada and N. W. USA Washington and Oregon State of USA) S America: (SW Coast of Chile Puerto Montt to Cape Horn). Australia: Islands of Tasmania, most parts of Victoria, and south island of N Zealand, Temperature: Winter: 8° -0° C; Summer: 18 − 25° C. Rainfall: Throughout the year, but maximum in winters; of cyclonic type; average 50 − 120 cm. sometimes windward side it is 250 cm. Vegetation: Deciduous Forest; Oak, Elm, Maple, Beech, Ash, Birch, Poplar, Hornbeam, Chestnut. In New Zealand Kaury tree is found; in N. America Douglas, Fir, Redwood, Sequoir, Western Hemlock, Western Cedar, Sitka Spruce.

  2. Central Continental/Siberian Type/Taiga Type/Cool Temperate Central Type/Corniferous Type: Region: 55° 70° Northern Hemisphere; South Alaska, S. Canada, parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland, N. Russia, N. Siberia and Sakhalin island. Temperature: In winters upto 50° C and in summer 15° C. Rainfall: 25 − 100 cm. And is of cyclonic type. Natural Vegetation: Coniferous (Pine, Fir, Hemlock, Larch, Cedar, Spruce) and evergreen trees shed their leaves after 5 years. Here, Timber is called Delwood. Lumbering is done especially in Canada, harvesting is also done

  3. Eastern Margin/Lauretian Type: Region: 45° 60° North Hemisphere; In North America: St. Lawrence low land (therefore called Lauretian Type) and East USA, Eastern Canada, New Foundland. In Asia: Manchuria, Amur river region of Siberia and in N. Japan region of Hokkaido. Temperature: In winters, 3° to 17° C and in summer, 18° -24° C. Rainfall: 50 − 125 cm. Vegetation: Coniferous trees and Deciduous trees like Maple, Beech, Ash, Chestnut, Elms, Spruce, Fir, Larch, Korean Pine.

  4. Cool Temperate Interior/Tundra/Cold Desert: Region: Above 65° N Southmost parts of Canada, Saskatchewan and Manitoba Province of Canada, N. Central and mid West of USA, Alberta, Alaska, N. Scandinavia, Iceland, Spitzbergeu in Svalbard island, E. Europe, Western Russia and Siberia. Temperature: 19° to 18° C Rainfall: Up to 25 cm, and of cyclonic type. Vegetation: Bush Tundra and Grass Tundra. Tribes: Eskimo Igloo. Transport by Dog Driver, Huskies, boat like Kayak and Umyak.

  5. Cold Zone: Region: 65° -90° North, Arctic or Polar; Canada, Alaska, Icecaps of Greenland. Temperature: 29° to 40° C in winters; in summer 10° C. Rainfall: Very light in summer, 10 inches. Vegetation: Turidra; Mosses, Lichens. Tribes: Samoveds in Arctic circle, Yaktus in Trans Baikalia, Chukchis in Siberia.

Grasslands Continents/Countries

  1. Prairies-N America

  2. Pampas-S America

  3. Pretoria-S Africa

  4. Veld-S Africa

  5. Steppes-Eurasia

  6. Downs-Australia

  7. Pusta-Hungary

  8. Cantaburry Grasslands-N Zealand

  9. Manchuria Grassland-China


Tuaregs (Western Sahara Desert), Bedowins (Arabian Desert), Bindibus (Australian Desert), Bushmen (Kalahari Desert).