Competitive Exams: Population Anthropological geography

By comparing the biology of man with that of other animals and so determining the degree of their relationship (Taxonomy) and by looking at fossils and so determining their age and development (Paleontology), the evolution of man can be predicted.

Geochronological evolution of mankind.

Paleocene and Eocene Prosimains (pre monkeys), Oligocene Prosimians decreased during this period, Miocene Dryopithecines (group of apes), End of Miocene Ramapithecus (progressive animal; with rounded dental arcade and human like teeth, was clearly a human ancestor), Pliocene Australopithecines (southern ape man, upright in stature and used crude tools), Pleistocene Homo erectus (erect walking primitive man), Late Pleistocene Appearance of Neanderthal skulls more massive than that of present man. Their tools were finely constructed than homoerectus.

Second interglacial stage other Pleistocene Appearance of modern Homosapiens.

An early group of Homosapiens are called Cromagnon.

Races of the world

Races can be primarily classified into Caucasiod, Mongoloid and negroid.


  • Skin colour reddish white to olive brown.

  • Stature medium to tall-Head long to broad and short

  • Face narrow to medium broad

  • Hair light blonde to dark brown

  • Eye light blue to dark brown

  • Mainly found in Europe.

  • Also along the northern belt of Africa, Asia Minor (Turkey), Afghanistan, Iran to Baluchistan and Northern India.

  • Subraces of caucasoid Mediterranean, Ainu, Celtic, Nordic, Alpine and East Baltic.

  • some composite races Armenoid, Dinaric. Predominantly white ones include Australian, Indo Dravidian and Polynesian. Residual mixed type include Nordic Alpine and Nordic Mediterranean.


  • Skin colour saffron to yellow brown, some are reddish brown.

  • Stature Medium tall to medium short.

  • Head Predominantly broad (Brachycephals)

  • Face Medium broad to very broad.

  • Hair brown to brown black.

  • Eye brown to dark brown, medial epicanthic fold very common.

  • Mainly Asiatic or oriental race.

  • Also found in central, eastern and SE Asia and western parts of Americas (Red Indians etc.), Arctic region (Eskimos in Canada, Greenland and Yakuts in Siberia).

  • Sub races include classic mongoloid and Arctic mongoloid.

  • Composite races include those that are predominantly mongoloid like Malaya mongoloid, Indonesian mongoloid and American Indians.


  • Skin colour brown to brown black

  • Stature tall to very short-Head predominantly long, height low to medium.

  • Face medium broad to narrow

  • Hair colour brown black

  • Eye brown to brown black, vertical eye fold common.

  • Characterized by prognathism that is protrusion of the jaw.

  • Some are also affected by steatopygia (bulky hips) e. g. Hottentots.

  • Sub races include African Negro, Nilotic negro and Negrito.

  • Composite races including those that are predominantly negroid like Melanesians and papuans.

  • Secondary subraces include Bushmen of Kalahari and hottentots of southern Africa.

  • By 8, 000 B. C hunters and gatherers had migrated from Africa through out Europe and Asia, to Australia and across the Bering Strait and southward the length of America. Only Antarctica was totally uninhabited by mankind. Major revolutions like Agricultural Revolution (10, 000 years before). Industrial Revolutions (1779 A. D) and Medical Revolution (20th century) were marked by distinct rise in world population.