Competitive Exams: Water and Air Transport

Water Transport

  • Inland Waterways Cheapest means of transport. India has 14, 500 km of navigable waterways.

  • The Inland Water Ways Authority of India was set up in 1986 for the regulation, maintenance and development of National Waterways. There are three National waterways in the country: NW 1: Allahabad to Haldia-1620 km. NW: Sadiya to Dhubri (Brahmaputra) 891km. NW3 TRottapuram to Kollam (west coast canal) 205km. Apart from these three ten other waterways have been proposed.

  • Navigable. Waterways in length (in descending order) Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Assam Kerala Bihar

Seaways

The vast coastline of India is about 7516 km.

Over two million sq. Km of Exclusive Economic Zone

India has 12 major ports and 184 minor and intermediate ports.

Major Ports in India

  1. Mumbai: Natural harbour. Biggest port. Handles petroleum products and cargo.

  2. Nhavasheva (J. L NEHRU): Off the Mumbai port. Developed to release pressure of the mumbai port. Highly mechanised.

  3. Kandla (Gujarat) Developed to release pressure on Mumbai after partition and loss of Karachi. It is a tidal port.

  4. Marmagao (Goa) Natural harbour Export handle iron ore, fish products, coconut and spices. Import handle fertilizers, chemicals, food articles etc.

  5. New Mangalore (Karnataka): Caters to export of iron ore from Kudremukh Also handles fertilisers, petroleum products, edible oils, coffee, tea etc

  6. Cochin (Kerala) Handles crude petroleum and petroleum products along with raw materials and fetilizers Caters to the needs of south western Tamil Nadu, South Karnataka and Kerela

  7. Kolkata A riverine port It is a tidal port and requires constant dredging of the Hooghly River. In order to maintain a minimum level of water to ensure its navigability, water is supplied from the Farrakka barrage on Ganga.

  8. Haldia Constructed to remove the congestion at Kolkata port It handles petroleum and its product, Engineering goods, Machines, Chemicals, Iron and Steel, Jute and Tea etc.

  9. Paradip (Orissa) It handles coal and Iron ore

  10. Vishakhapatnam (A. P) It is the deepest, landlocked and protected port

  11. Chennai One of the oldest and an artificial port on the east coast It handles Iron ore, Fertilizers, Petroleum and its produts and general cargo. Because of the shallow waters near the coast, it is suited for large ships.

  12. Ennore (Tamil Nadu) Developed to minimize pressure on Chennai port.

  13. Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu) Deals with food grains, Edible oils, Sugar, Chemicals, Petroleum products and Coal.

Air Transport

Airport Authority of India (AAI) provides for safe efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the India Air Space. The Authority manages 11 international and 112 domestic Airports.

It also manages 28 passenger terminals at defense airfields. International Air Ports are:

Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji International Air Port), Delhi (Indira Gandhi International Air Port), Kolkata (Subhash Chandra Bose), Chennai (Meenambakkam), Trivendrium (Thiruvananthpuram), Ahmedabad (Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel Air Port), Cochin (Needumbassery I. A), Goa (Dabolim LA), Guwahati (Lokpriya Gopinath Bardoloi LA), Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi LA), Amritsar, Banglore. Civil Aviation Training College (Allahabad) provides training on various operational areas.

National Institute of Aviation Management and Research (NIAMAR) at Delhi is managed by AAI.

Indira Gandhi Rastriya Udan Academy at Fursat Ganj in U. P is an autonomous body under Ministry of Civil Aviation. It imparts training to the parts.