Competitive Exams: Indian Geography Eastern coastal plains

East Coastal Plain

  • Located between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal coast

  • Comparatively broader (average width 80100Km)

  • Big rivers like the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery have formed large deltas

  • Lagoons are comparatively less in this plain

  • The eastern plain has more or less a straight coast where good ports are lacking.

  • Mostly of emergent type, characterized by offshore bars, fine sea beaches, sand ridges and lagoons.

  • Western Coastal Plain: This straight coast is quite indented and is marked by caves (small sheltered recess in the coast) and creeks (small tidal inlets or estuaries of small streams)

  • Gujarat plains built up of alluvium of the Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada and the Tapti rivers.

  • Only on the Malabar Coast it is that there are a number of lakes, lagoons and backwaters locally called the Kayals. Eastern Coast: f From N to S, the coastal plains are known as the Utkal, Andhra and the Tamil Nadu Plains it has lakes, like Chilka, Koleru, and Pulicat.

  • The islands of Srisailam, Srirangapattamand Sivasamudram are found in the Kaveri basin.

More on Western Ghats

  • Length 1600Kni

  • These block mountains were formed due to the down warping of a part of the land into the Arabian Sea. Up to 16° N latitude they are mainly composed of basalt

  • Harishchandra, Mahabaleshwar, Kalsubai and Salher are important peaks in this region. Thalghat and Bhorghat are the important passes for roads and railways

  • South of Goa they are composed of granites and gneisses and have more rugged topography.

  • Average elevation is 1220 m. Few peaks are above 1500 m like, Kudremukh (1892) and Pushpagiri (1714) fin the Nilgiris the Eastern Ghats join the Sahyadris (W Ghats) to form a mountain knot where highest point is Doddabetta (2637m) South of Nilgiri lies the Palghat Gap which connects Tamil Nadu with Kerala South of Palghat, Anaimudi (2695m) is a knot, which is joined by three hills, viz. The Anaimalai hills (1800 − 2000m) in the north, the Palni hills (9001200m) in the N. E. And the Cardamom or Elamalai hills in the south, The Anaimalai constitutes a series of plateau with rolling topography. Here hill slopes support tea, coffee, cinchona and Kodaikanal hill station (2195m) is located on the southern edge of the Palni hills, Tambraparni has it source near Agastya Malai forming a series of waterfalls (Bajiatirtham and Papanasam)

More on Eastern Ghats

Depict True Mountain characteristic between Mahnadi and Godavari peaks Nimalgiri (Koraput), Mahendragiri (Ganjam) Dominant rocks: Khondalites (metamorphosed sedimentary) and Charnokites (intursive rocks resembling granites)

Between the Krishna River and Chennai they continue as the Kondavidu hills mainly composed of Quartzites and Slates.

The Nallamalai (9001100m) and Palkonda hills are composed of Cuddapah and Kurnool formations. Their continuation is to be seen in the Javadi, Shevroy and Biligiri Rangam hills of Salem and Coimbatore.

Nilgiris (blue mountains) provide the converging site for three mountain ranges: The Sahyadri joining opposite of the Makurti peak; the Southern Ghats across the Palghat in the south and the Eastern Ghats in the north eastern corner.