Competitive Exams: Indian Agriculture (Part 1 of 3)

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The new seed policy came in 1988.

There are three types of seeds: Breeder seeds of the primary stage, Foundation seeds of the intermediate stage and the certified or the quality seeds that is actually distributed.

Total seed production is presently hovering around 100 lakh quintals.

National seeds corporation (NSC), State Farm Corporation of India (SFCI), State seed Corporations and State seed certification agencies are the primary agencies working in the seed sector.


It is a kharif crop.

  • Require about 80 to 95 days to mature.

  • Average yield: 1606 kg/hectare.

  • U P, Bihar, Rajasthan, M P, Punjab are important maize producing zone.

  • Karnataka highest yield 2943 kg/h.

Jowar (Sarghum vulgare)

  • Temperature: 26° 33°

  • Rainfall: Less than 100 cm (30cm-100cm)

Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis)

  • Many species of this give milk like juice called latex which on drying or coagulating gives new rubber.

  • The principle source of rubber is the Hevea tree (also known as Para Rubber Tree) native to the Amazon region in South America.

  • Rubber plantation was first introduced in 1902 in India on the banks of the Periyar.

  • Temperature: 21° C 35° C.

  • Rainfall: 200cm to 400cm

  • Alluvial soil

  • Kerala produces 91% and Tamil Nadu: 5%.

  • Synthetic rubber: Raw materials used are Benzene and Ethyl alcohol.

  • Plant set up at Borada.

  • Process: Wet process called Plantation or Parchment Dry Process called Cherry or Native Method.

  • Production: Karnataka (Chikmanglur first plantation, Hassan, Shimoga, Coorg, Mandi); Kerala (Palaghat, Kottayam and Trivandrum) Tamil Nadu (North Aracot to Tirunvelli).

  • Trade: India exports USA, Canada, Europe, Australia.

  • India occupies the 12th position in coffee production.

Jute (Corchorous Capsularies)

  • Production yearly 40% of the world jute.

  • It is also called Brown Paper of wholesale trade.

  • Temperature 27° C34° C

  • Humidity: 8090%

  • Rainfall: 170200 cm

  • Soil: Sandy, clayey, alluvial soil

  • Sowing: Mar. Apr.

  • Harvesting: July-Sept.

  • Jetting: It is a microbiological process; it loosens the outer bark and facilitating removal of fibre from stalk.

  • Yield: 1300 kg/hr.

  • Variety: JRO7835 (Basudev),

  • Production: West Bengal (2/3rd), Assam, Bihar

Cotton (Gossypium)

  • Largest area under cultivation in world 40% of total cultivation area.

  • Produces only 8 − 10% of total world production.

  • 4th important after USA, China, Russia.

  • It is a subtropical crop.

  • Required temperature: 21° C27° C.

  • Rainfall: 50 cm to 80cm.

  • Precaution: Frost free period 200 days.

  • Soil: Regur or Black; clayey soils containing lime and phosphates.

  • Area: Mainly in the area west of 80° E Meridian.

  • Production: As a Kharif crop

  • Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, UP, MP (April/May to Oct.); Tamil Nadu (sown in Jan.).

  • Best Cotton: Sudan and Egypt.

  • Ginning: Which consists of separating the seeds from the raw material.

  • Variety: Hybrid4, introduced in Gujrat, DHC32.

  • Yield: 265 kg/hr.

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