Competitive Exams: Indian Agriculture (Part 2 of 3)


  • Rainfall: 50 − 80cm.

  • Soil: Sandy Loam soil should be rich in Potash, Nitrogen, Magnesium, Phosphoric Acid.

  • India has 17% of total area under cultivation.

  • Variety: Nicotiana Tabaccum and Nicotiana Rustica.

  • Flues: Virginia tobacco is procured in special chambers known as Barns with artificial heat passing through metal pipes called Flues. Hence it is known as Flues cured Virginia tobacco.

  • Export: Second largest exporter after USA.

  • Area: Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra in the Deccan, Bihar, Orissa, UP, West Bengal.

  • Production: Average 1000 leaf/ha Andhra Pradesh largest producer, Guntur heart of tobacco trade.

  • Exported to UK, EEU.

  • Two important ports: Madras and Kakinada.

Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarium)

  • Belongs to grass family.

  • Contains canesugar (Sucrose).

  • It is basically a tropical crop.

  • Temperature: 20° 30° not above 50° C, not less than 20° C

  • Rainfall75cm 120cm.

  • Soil clay loams, Alluvial; should be rich in Nitrogen, Phosphoric and Potash.

  • Setts: All commercial plantations are made of stalk cuttings of two or three joints.

  • Ratoon crops: After the first crop has been cut, the stem begins to grow again.

  • Average Yield: 65375 kg/ha Highest in Tamil Nadu

  • Production: UP the largest producer, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana.

Tea (Camellia tea)

  • India is the leading producer and leading exporter.

  • Varieties: Black tea leaves are dried in the sun and then fermented; Green tea far east China and Japan, there is no fermentation.

  • Climate: Temp. 13° c and 35° c; rainfall 150250 cm. protection against long dry weather.

  • Soil: Sandy loams are best; iron in soil is beneficial.

  • Cultivation: Assam 54.7%; Assam 24.3%; Tamil Nadu9.2%.

  • Production: Assam21.48%; W. Bengal21.48%; Tamil Nadu13.32% and Kerala8.34%.

  • Export: Britain chief buyer, Russia, USA and Australia.

Coffee (Coffea)

  • Oldest among the plantation.

  • It is the highland crop of the Tropics.

  • Temperature: 15° C 28° C

  • Protection: Sensitive to cold and frost and to be protected from hot dry winds.

  • Sun rays are injurious.

  • Varieties: Arabica, Robusta and Coffee Liberica (75%)

  • Rainfall 125 cm 200 cm.

  • Height of the crop 910 mts.

  • Plucking time: Coffee Arabica between Oct. Nov. Coffee Robusta between Jan-Feb.

  • Production (state wise) Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil nadu, Andhra pradesh.

  • Yield (state wise) Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.


Sesamum (Sesamum Indicum)

  • It is both a Kharif crop (N. India) and Rabi (S. India).

  • Seed contains 46%52% oil.

  • Light and Sandy soils and Black Cotton soils.

  • Temperature21 − 23° c.

  • Rainfall4050cm.

  • India produces l/3rd of the total production.

  • Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, M P, Tamil Nadu.

Groundnut (Arachis Hypogea)

  • Leading in the world.

  • Needs tropical climate.

  • Susceptible to frost.

  • Khrif Crop (N. India), Rabi (S. India).

  • Rainfall50 − 100cm.

  • Sandy Loams.

  • Sown in June-July and harvested in four months.

  • Deccan Plateau and Gujrat.

  • Highest yield in Gujarat.

  • Temperature20° -25° c.

Rapeseed and Mustard seed

  • Rapeseed is also known as Sarson, Toria and Taramira.

  • Mustard seed is also known as Rai.

  • It is a Rabi corp.

  • Alluvial soil.

  • Rainfall2540cm.

  • Maturity7590 days.