Competitive Exams: Manufacturing Industries in India (Part 1 of 7)

  • Previous

Cotton Textile Industry

  • First modern cotton Textile mill was set up in 1818 at Fort Gloster near Calcutta. Second important was founded in 1854 in Bombay by C. N. Devar.

  • Third mill in 1861 in Shahpur (Ahmadabad), then Calico mill in 1863 also in Ahmadabad.

  • Till 1875: 76, 46 mills were set up out of which 60% were located in Bombay alone.

  • Till 1940, mills rose to 271, in 1926 it rose to 334, till 1939 389 and till 1945 they rose to 417.

Present Scenario

  • Cotton industry is the largest organised modern industry in India in which about 16% of Industry capital and about 20% of industrial labour is engaged.

  • Till 31 March 1996, there were 1569 cotton mills in India: 188 were in public sector, 146 in cooperative sector and 1.235 in private sector. Distribution:

  • Highest is Maharashtra in Cotton textile Production 42.49%, but in Cotton Yarn Maharashtra produces only 16.65%. In Maharashtra there are total 122 mills out of which 63 mills are in Mumbai, so Mumbai is called Cottonopolis.

  • Other centres in Maharashtra are Sholapur, Pune, Kojjiapur, Satara, Nagpur, Aurangabad, Amravati and Jalgaon.

  • Second highest Gujarat, which produces 23.5% of cloth and 8% of yarn of India.

  • It has 118 mills, out of which 73 are in Ahmadabad, other mills are in Surat, Vadodra, Rajkot, Porbandar, Maurvi and Bhavnagar.

  • Third is Madhya Pradesh7.07% of cloth and 1.82% of yarn production in India. Centres are Gwalior, Ujjain, Indore, Dewas, Ratlam, Jabalpur and Bhopal.

  • Fourth is Tamil Nadu 6.18% of total cloth but highest in India in cotton yarn production 34.21%.

  • T N has 439 mills in which 200 are in Coimbotore, therefore called Manchester of South India.

  • Other areas are Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Perambur, Tuticorin.

  • Fifth is West Bengal 3.87% of total cloth and 2.94% of cotton yarn.

  • Most important centre is Murshidabad, others are in Howrah, Hugli, Syampur, Shrirampur and Panihar.

  • Sixth is U P 3.86% of the cloth, but 7.835 of cotton yarn.

  • Kanpur is the largest centre and called Manchester of U P, out of 52 mills in U. P, Kanpur has 10.

  • Others are Moradabad, Varanasi, Agra, Bareilly, Aligarh, Modinagar, Saharanpur, Rampur, Etawa, Lucknow and Mirzapur.

  • Seventh is Pondicherry

  • 2.61% of Cotton Textile and 1.16% of yarn.

  • Eighth is Rajasthan2.34% of textile and 3.62% of yarn. Centres are Pali, Beawar, Vijaynagar, Kishangarh, Ganganagar, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Jaipur, Kota and Ajmer.

  • Ninth is Karnataka 2.28% of cloth, 4.68% of yarn. Centres are Bangalore, Belgam, Mangalore, Chitradurg, Gulbarga, Chenapatnam and Mysore.

  • Orissa: 2.03% of cloth and 1.87% of yarn.

  • Punjab: 1.78% of cloth, 5.91% of yarn; Amitsar, Ludhiana and Fagwara are centres.

  • Kerala: 1.09% cloth; 2.03% yarn; centres are Kollam, Trichur, Tiruvanantpuram and Alleppey.

  • Bihar: 0.34% of textile, 0.19% of yarn. Centres are Gaya, Patna, Bhagalpur.

  • Andhra Pradesh: 0.33%of cloth, 5.20% in yarn. Centres are Hyderabad, Sikandarabad, Guntur, E. Godawari and Udaigiri.

  • India exports cotton textile highest to U. S, then to Russia and then to UK

Causes

  1. Mumbai enjoys humid climate which is essential for cotton industry because thread does not break so frequently.

  2. Mumbai has a big port which helps in import of machinery.

  3. Cheap hydro electricity.

  4. Black cotton soil in the hinterland provides cotton as the basic raw material.

  5. Better communication.

  6. Facilities for washing

Problems of Cotton Textile Industry (in hierarchy)

  1. Shortage of raw cotton: Due to 1947 partition, as Sindh was an important centre of cotton.

  2. Obsolete machinery.

  3. Erratic power supply.

  4. Low productivity of labour.

  5. Stiff competition, especially with China.

  6. Silk mills.