Competitive Exams: Indian Geography Soil erosion

Soil Erosion

Factors influencing soil erosion

  • Rainfall
  • Slope of topography
  • Vegetation
  • Tillage
  • Nature of the soil
  • Soil moisture
  • Wind velocity

Causes of soil erosion

  • Deforestation
  • Faulty cultivation methods
  • Shifting cultivation
  • Overgrazing
  • Diversion of natural drainage channels by railway embankments and roads Lack of proper surface drainage
  • Forest fires

Effects of Soil Erosion

Loss of top soil Harmful effects of erosion on organic matter and soil structure.

Decline in soil capacity Depostion of sand and gravel on agricultural land

Flooding of streams

Methods to check soil erosion

  • Biological Measures Improving the existing surface cover Strip cropping Crop rotation Stubble mulching Vegetative binding Using organic manures Other measures (checking overgrazing, reducing surplus cattle, stripping shifting cultivation and taking preventative measures against forest fires)

  • Mechanical Measures: Contour tillage, Contour bunding, Terracing, Constructing proper drainage channels and plugging the gullies, Basin lifting, Water harvesting, Scientific slope management.