Competitive Exams: Africa

  • Latitudinal Extent 37° N 35° S

  • Longitudinal Extent 51° E − 16° W

  • Countries (Area wise) Sudan, Algeria, Zaire, Libya, Chad, Niger, Angola, Mali

  • Land locked countries in Africa Mali, Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic (CAR), Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Ethiopia, Botsv/ana, Lesotho and Swaziland.

  • Longest coastlines (Leaving Madagascar) Somalia, Mozambique, S. Africa, Egypt

  • Namibia has a panhandle (the protruding part) in order to have access to the Zambezi River. It is a colonial legacy and is known as Caprivi Strip.

  • Lesotho is completely surrounded by S. Africa, where as Swaziland lies trapped between Mozambique and S. Africa. This makes South Africa a perforated state.

  • Latest country to gain independence in Africa Eritrea.

  • Equator passes through Gabon, Congo, Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo), Uganda, Lake Victoria and Kenya

  • Tropic of cancer passes through Western Sahara, Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Libya, Egypt.

  • Tropic of Capricorn Namibia, Botswana, S. Africa and Mozambique

  • Colonial Rules in Africa Britain Egypt, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, S. Africa, Botswana, Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, British East Africa (Kenya) British Somalia land. France Algeria, French East Africa (including Mali, Niger, Barkina Faso, Benin, Mauritania), Morocco, Madagascar, French Equitorial Africa (Chad, C. A R, Gabon) Belgium Congo, Zaire. Germany Togo, Cameroon, German East Africa (Tanzania), Italy Libya, Italian Somalialand, Eritrea; Spain Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Potugal Portugese Guinea, Angola and Mozambique

  • Liberia was formed as a country of settlement of slaves from United States of America (USA).

  • Capital of Liberia that is Monrovia has been named af V ter the President Monroe of USA.

  • Ethiopia and Liberia were never colonies.

Physiographic features

Atlas mountains (Morocco and Algeria), Ahaggar mts (Algeria). Libyan Desert (Libya and Egypt), Qattara Depression (a deflation hollow) in Egypt, Western Desert (West of Nile in Egypt), Sinai peninsula (Egypt), Tibesti Massif (Chad), Nubian Desert (Sudan and Egypt). Ethiopian Highlands (Highest Peak Ras Dashan) in Ethiopia, Mt. Elgon and Mt. Kenya (Kenya), Mt. Kilimanjaro (highest peak of Africa) in Tanzania (near Tanzanian boundary with Kenya) Mitumba mts (Zaire). Katanga Plateau (Known for Copper deposits is inZaire and Zambia), Muchinga mts (Zambia). Kalahari Desert (Botswana), Okavango swamps and Makagadikgadi salt pan (because of internal drainage) is in Botswana, High Veld (S. Africa), Drankensberg and Great Karroo (S. Africa), Namib Desert (because of cold Benguela current), Bie Plateau (Angola), Congo Basin (Zaire), Adamawa Highland (Cameron andNigeria), Jos Plateau (Nigeria), Sudan region (Savannah region south of Sahara), Nimba Mts (Guinea), Fouta Djallon (Guinea) Sahel region Lying south of Sahara is a transition zone between Sahara desert and savannah region. It is the least developed region.

  • Horn of Africa Countries including Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and Ethiopia lie in a region having a horn shape.

  • Lakes (largest Lake Victoria lies in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania). Lake Victoria does not from part of East African Rift valley Lakes lying in rift valley L. Turkana L. Albert, L. Edward, L. Kivu, L. Tanganyika, L. Malavi (also known as L. Nyasa)