Competitive Exams: South America

  • Latitudinal extent 11° N55° S

  • Longitudinal extent 35° W81° W

  • Largest country (area wise): Brazil

  • Largest country (population): Brazil

  • South America and Latin America are different. Latin America comprises all the countries of South America along with Mexico and Caribbean countries.

  • Countries Area wise Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Columbia, Bolivia, Venezuela, Chile

  • Landlocked countries Bolivia and Paraguay

  • Countries according to the length of coast line Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Peru

  • Main rivers and their tributaries: Amazon: Madeira, Tapajos, Negro

  • Parana: Paraguay, Pilcomayo Uruguay (forms Argentina's boundary with Brazil and Uruguay)

  • Orinoco (in Venezuela) Magdalena (Columbia) Colorado, Salado and Negro (in Argentina)

  • In South America equator passes through Ecuador, Columbia and Brazil

  • Tropic of Capricorn passes through Chile, Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil

  • Deserts Atacama (Chile) and Patagonia (Argentina)

  • Bolivian plateau It is an inter montane plateau, also known as Bolivian altiplano

  • Physiographic regions Amazon Basin Equatorial rain forests (Selvas), Catingas, Plateau of Mato Grasso, Campos (Tropical grassland), Plateau of Borborema, Sertao, Brazilian Highlands (Ancient rocks), Gran Chaco (Great low land having warm temperate forests and grasslands), Serra De Mantiqueira, Entre Rios, Pampas (Temperate grass lands), Patagonia (Desert), Andes (having Bolivian Plateau) (Peaks Bolivar, Cotapaxi, Chimbarazo, Misti, Ojas Del Salado, Cerro Aconcagua), Western, Central and Eastern Cordillera, Llanos (Tropical grass lands), Guiana Highland, Atacama (World's driest desert).

  • Brazil forms boundaries with all other countries in S. America except Ecuador and Chile

  • Amazon Basin and Western Columbia around Isthmus of Panama are very high Rainfall regions

  • Peruvian coast (because of cold Peru or Humboldt Current), Northern Chile and western and southern Argentina receive least rainfall.

  • Brazilian coast, Southern Uruguay area around, Rio de la Plata and Buenos Aires in Argentina, around Santiago in Central Chile, Peruvian coast, mountain regions of Ecuador and Columbia are densely populated.

  • Mediterranean climate and vegetation is found in Central Chile

  • Livestock ranching is very important in Argentina

  • La Paz (Bolivia) is the highest capital city in the world.

  • Brasilia (capital of Brazil) lies in the Campos region

  • Sao Paulo (Brazil) is the largest urban agglomeration in the southern hemisphere.

  • Coffee estates in Brazil are known as ‘Fazendas’

  • Rio de Janeiro is known for Sugar Loaf Mountains.

  • Manaus major rubber collecting centre in the upper part of the Amazon Basin.

  • Belem situated near the mouth of the Amazon River and is a chief port of the Amazon basin

  • Recife (Brazil) is a port which exports sugarcane

  • Chuquicamata (Chile) is the world's largest copper town.

  • Punta Arenas is the southernmost inhabited city in the world.