Competitive Exams: Mineral resources of South America and Mexico

Coal

  • Like Africa, S. America with its pre Paleozoic rocks and rugged Andean ranges, has few coal reserves. This is because coal is found in sedimentary strata of carboniferous and post carboniferous period.

  • Concepcion (Central Chile), S. E. Brazil (low grade coal) Scattered deposits are also found in uplands of Peru, Columbia and W. Argentina. Hydro Electricity Brazil (At Paulo Alfonso on Sao Francisco River in North East), Argentina and Venezuela Significant H E P producers.

Petroleum

  • Mexico (Baja California etc.), Venezuela (Gulf of Maracaibo, inland Puerto La Cruz, Llanos, Orinocco Delta). Much oil is also shipped to the Dutch islands of Aruba and Curacao.

  • Small oil Deposits Trinidad (Famous for its Pitch Lake an almost in exhaustible source of viscous asphalt or bitumen) Bermudez Pitch Lake of Venezuela is a similar phenomenon.

  • Columbia Caribbean coastal lowlands and Magdalena valley.

  • Ecuador Coastal lowlands and Amazonian region

  • Peru both on coast and inland (Lobitos and Negritos near Talara).

  • Oil refinery at Talara. Upper Amozon basin at Ganzo Azul and is sent to the refinery at Iquitos on the Amazon for export down river.

  • Bolivia Eastern region at Camiri, Rio Bermejo and Sanandita (Pipelines run to Sucre and Cochabamba) -Chile Near Punta Arenas and on Tierra del Fuego

  • Argentina largest producer after Venezuela. Found near Mendoza In the North West and in South.

  • Paraguay has no oil resources but Brazil has recently found significant oil deposits.

Iron Ore

  • Brazil Itabira, MinaGerais, Carajas (Iron and Steel works at Volta Redonda, Belo Horizonte)

  • Venezuela Guiana Highlands

  • Chile Algarrobo

  • Peru Nazca Marcona

Others

  • Copper Chile (Chuquicamata, El Teniente), Peru (Morococha, Casapalsa)
  • Tin Bolivia (Potosi and Oruro) Also in Brazil and Argentina
  • Lead and Zinc Peru and Mexico
  • Nickel Cuba and Dominican Republic
  • Manganese Brazil (Amapa), Mexico
  • Chromium Brazil Tungsten Bolivia

Industries

  • Argentina, Brazil (Best developed)

  • Argentina and Uruguay (Along the shore of Plate estuary extending inland as far as Rosario).

  • Buenos Aires, Rosario and Cordoba

  • Ship building-La Plata Chemicals, textiles, aircraft, steel

  • Pampas Lands Meat Packing dairying flour milling

  • Brazil (Chief region is in South East)

  • Sao Paulo Steel, Chemicals, motor vehicle assembly, paper, cement and beer.

  • Rio De Janeiro Shipbuilding and aircraft engineering-Belo Horizonte Metallurgy and Iron and Steel

  • In Chile, main industries are at Santiago, Valparaiso and Concepcion